Roger S. Clark

Roger S. Clark

Board of Governors Professor

Contact Information

Law Office: E435
V: (856) 225-6390
F: (856) 225-6516
rsclark@camden.rutgers.edu


Areas of Expertise

Courses Recently Taught

Biography

- B.A., L.L.B., L.L.M., L.L.D., L.L.D. honoris causa; Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand; L.L.M., J.S.D.; Columbia University, New York

Professor Clark teaches courses in international law; international protection of human rights; international organizations; international criminal law and criminal justice policy; United States foreign relations and national security law; and criminal law.   He served as a member of the United Nations Committee on Crime Prevention and Control between 1987 and 1990.
Prior to joining the Rutgers faculty in 1972, he worked for the New Zealand Justice Department and Ministry of Foreign Affairs; taught law in New Zealand; served as an American Council of Learned Societies Fellow and Doctoral Fellow at the Columbia University School of Law; interned at the United Nations; and taught at the law school of the University of Iowa.
He has been a visiting or adjunct professor at numerous institutions, including the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Miami, the University of Graz in Austria, and the University of the South Pacific (Fiji).  He has taught in study abroad programs offered by Temple University and the University of San Diego and teaches regularly in the University of Salzburg’s Summer School in International Criminal Law.  Professor Clark serves on the editorial boards of various publications, including Criminal Law Forum: An International Journal; the Human Rights Review; and the International Lawyer.  He has been the general editor of the Procedural Aspects of International Law monographs since 2004, and is a board member of several international non-governmental organizations, such as the International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy in Vancouver, B.C., and the International League for Human Rights, headquartered in New York.
In 1995 and 1996, he represented the Government of Samoa in arguing the illegality of nuclear weapons before the International Court of Justice in The Hague.  Since 1995, he has represented Samoa in negotiations to create the International Criminal Court and to get the Court running successfully.  He was very active in Court’s Special Working Group on the Crime of Aggression which had the task of drafting an amendment to the Court’s Statute to activate its nascent jurisdiction over the crime of aggression.

Publications

Books:

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: CASES AND MATERIALS (LexisNexis, Newark, 3rd ed., 2009) (with Edward M. Wise and Ellen S. Podgor) (Teacher's Manual to same, 2005) (Supplements, 2006, 2008) 

UNDERSTANDING INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW (LexisNexis, Newark, 3d ed. 2013 2d ed., 2008) (with Ellen S. Podgor) 

INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL LAW IN RUSSIA AND EASTERN EUROPE: ESSAYS IN HONOR OF GEORGE GINSBURGS (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 2001) (editor and contributor) (with Ferdinand Feldbrugge & Stanislaw Pomorski)

THE CASE AGAINST THE BOMB: MARSHALL ISLANDS, SAMOA, AND SOLOMON ISLANDS BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE IN ADVISORY PROCEEDINGS ON THE LEGALITY OF THE THREAT OR USE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS (Rutgers Law School, Camden, New York, London, 1996) (editor and contributor) (with Madeleine Sann)

THE PROSECUTION OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMES: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA (Transaction, New Brunswick, N.J., 1996) (editor) (with Madeleine Sann)

THE UNITED NATIONS CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROGRAM: FORMULATION OF STANDARDS AND EFFORTS AT THEIR IMPLEMENTATION (University of Pennsylvania Press for Procedural Aspects of International Law Institute, Philadelphia, 1994)

HUMAN RIGHTS SOURCEBOOK (Paragon House, New York, 1987) (with A. Blaustein and J. Sigler)

NO FAULT AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE IN ACTION (Oceana, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1977) (with A. Widiss, J. Little and T. Jones)

TORT IN TRANSITION: A NEW ZEALAND COLLECTION OF CASES AND MATERIALS ON TORT IN THE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION ERA (Fourth Estate Publishing, Wellington, 1976) (with P. McKenzie and G. Palmer)

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW ZEALAND CONSTITUTION (N.Z. Dept. of Education, Wellington, 1975)

A UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1972)

ESSAYS ON CRIMINAL LAW IN NEW ZEALAND (Sweet and Maxwell, Wellington, 1971) (editor and contributor)

Articles, Book Chapters and Forewords:

Is The Butter Battle Book's Bitsy Big Boy Boomeroo Banned? What Has International Law to Say About Weapons of Mass Destruction? 58 NEW YORK LAW SCHOOL LAW REVIEW 507  (2013-2014)

Jurisdiction Over Transnational Crime, in Neil Boister and Robert Currie eds., ROUTLEDGE HANDBOOK OF TRANSNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 91 (2014)

The Crime of Aggression: From the Trial of Takashi Sakai, August 1946, to the Kampala Review Conference on the ICC in 2010, in Kevin Jon Heller & Gerry Simpson eds., THE HIDDEN HISTORIES OF WAR CRIMES TRIALS 387 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013)

Concluding Thoughts, in Suzannah Linton ed., HONG KONG’S WAR CRIMES TRIALS 199 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013)

Alleged Aggression in Utopia: An International Criminal Law Exam Question for 2020, in William A. Schabas, Yvonne McDermott and Niamh Hayes eds.,  THE ASHGATE COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES 63 (Ashgate, Aldershot, 2013)

Peacekeeping forces, jurisdiction and immunity: A tribute to George Barton, 43 VICTORIA U. OF WELLINGTON L. REV. 77 (2012)

Some aspects of the concept of international criminal law: suppression conventions, jurisdiction, submarine cables and The Lotus, 22 CRIMINAL LAW FORUM 519 (2011) (contribution to Symposium in honor of Professor Otto Triffterer’s 80th birthday)

Complementarity and the crime of aggression, in Carsten Stahn and Mohammed M. El Zeidy eds., II THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT AND COMPLEMENTARITY: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE 721 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011)

History of Efforts to Codify Crimes Against Humanity: From the Charter of Nuremberg to the Statute of Rome, in Leila Nadya Sadat ed., FORGING A CONVENTION FOR CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY 8 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011)

Amendments to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Considered at the First Review Conference on the Court, Kampala, 31 May-11 June 2010, 2 GOETTINGEN J. INT’L L.  689 (2010)

The Development of International Criminal Law, in Chile Eboe-Osuji ed., PROTECTING HUMANITY:  ESSAYS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW AND POLICY IN HONOUR OF NAVANETHEM PILLAY (Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden, 2010)

The Role of the United Nations, in Mangai Natarajan ed., INTERNATIONAL CRIME AND JUSTICE 337 (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 2010)

The Attrition of Capital Punishment Worldwide as the American Law Institute Withdraws its Model Penal Code Provision Recommending How to Do It, 21 CRIMINAL LAW FORUM 511 (2010) (review essay)

Aggression in International and in New Zealand Law, in Brian Lynch ed., CELEBRATING 75 YEARS OF NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE  OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS 49 (NZIIA, Wellington, 2010)

The International Criminal Law System, 8 NEW ZEALAND J. PUB. & INT’L L. 27 (2010)

Effecting Amendments to the Rome Statute that May Be Decided upon at the First Review Conference in 2010, 81 INT’L  REV. PENAL L.  65 (2010)

The ‘Weapons Provision’ and its Annex: The Belgian Proposals, in Roberto Bellilli ed., INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE: LAW AND PRACTICE FROM THE ROME STATUTE TO ITS REVIEW 489 (Ashgate, Farnham & Burlington, 2010)

Negotiating Provisions Defining the Crime of Aggression, its Elements and the Conditions for ICC Exercise of Jurisdiction Over It, 20 EUROPEAN J. INT’L L. 1103 (2009)

The Review Conference on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Kampala, Uganda, 31 May-11 June 2010, 16 AUSTRALIAN INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 9 (2009)

Building on Article 8(2)(b)(xx) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Weapons and Methods of Warfare, 12 NEW CRIMINAL LAW REV. 366 (2009)

The crime of aggression, in Carsten Stahn & Göran Sluiter eds., THE EMERGING PRACTICE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT 709 (Brill, The Netherlands, 2009)

Ambiguities in Articles 5(2), 121 and 123 of the Rome Statute, 41 CASE WESTERN RESERVE J. INT’L LAW 413 (2009)

Elements of Crimes in Early Confirmation Decisions of the Pre-trial Chambers of the International Criminal Court, 6 NEW ZEALAND Y.B. Int’l L.  209 (2008).

Drafting a General Part to a Penal Code: Some Thoughts Inspired by the Negotiations on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and by the Court’s First Substantive Law Discussion in the Lubanga Dyilo Confirmation Proceedings, 19 CRIMINAL LAW FORUM 519 (2008)

The Military Commissions Act of 2006: An Abject Abdication by Congress, 6 RUTGERS J. LAW & PUB. POL’Y 78 (2008)

State Obligations Under the Genocide Convention in Light of the ICJ’s Decision in the Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 61 RUTGERS L. REV. 75 (2008)

Several entries, in Otto Triffterer ed., COMMENTARY ON THE ROME STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT, OBSERVERS' NOTES, ARTICLE BY ARTICLE (C.H. Beck, Hart, Nomos, Munich, Oxford, Baden-Baden, 2d ed., 2008)

The Crime of Aggression and the International Criminal Court, in M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., I INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 243 (3rd ed. 2008), also in José Doria, Hans-Peter Gasser & M. Cherif Bassiouni eds., THE LEGAL REGIME OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: ESSAYS IN HONOR OF PROFESSOR IGOR PAVLOVICH BLISHCHENKO (2009)

Apartheid, in M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., I INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 599 (3rd ed. 2008)

Creating and Explaining the International Criminal Court, 19 CRIMINAL LAW FORUM 589 (2008) (book essay)

Nuremberg and the Crime against Peace, 6 WASH. U. GLOBAL STUDIES LAW REVIEW 527 (2007)

Western Sahara and the United Nations Norms on Self-Determination and Aggression, in INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE QUESTION OF WESTERN SAHARA (Karin Arts & Pedro Pinto Leite ed., IPJET, Oporto, 2007)

Possible Amendments for the First ICC Review Conference in 2009, 2007 NEW ZEALAND YEARBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 103

The International Criminal Court and the Crime of Aggression, 2007 CHINA REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 213 (in Chinese, Wang Xiumei trans.)

Aggression: A Crime Under Domestic Law? [2006] NEW ZEALAND LAW JOURNAL 349

Some Challenges Facing the Assembly of States Parties of the International Criminal Court, in Eduardo Vetere & Pedro David eds., VICTIMS OF CRIME AND ABUSE OF POWER: FESTSCHRIFT IN HONOUR OF IRENE MELUP 141 (United Nations, Bangkok, 2005)

The Role of the United Nations, in Mangai Natarajan ed., INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE 117 (McGraw Hill, New York, 2005)

Nuclear Weapons and Weapons of Mass Destruction, in Dinah L. Shelton ed.-in-chief, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENOCIDE AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY 754 and 1151 (Thomson Gale, Detroit, 2005)

The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 50 WAYNE L. REV. 161 (2004)

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and Weapons of a Nature to Cause Superfluous Injury or Unnecessary Suffering, or Which Are Inherently Indiscriminate, in John Carey, William V. Dunlap & R. John Pritchard eds., INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW: CHALLENGES 259 (Transnational Publishers, New York, 2004)

Justice Without Borders: The International Criminal Court (Panel Discussion), 17 TEMPLE INT'L & COMP. L.J. 90 (2003)

Rethinking Aggression as a Crime and Formulating Its Elements: The Final Work-Product of the Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court, 15 LEIDEN J. INT'L L. 859 (2002)

The Interrogation of Karl Hermann Frank & the Kristallnacht Documents, 4 RUTGERS J. OF L. & RELIG. 2 (2002)

Foreword to Bertrand G. Ramcharan, THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS: THE CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION ix (Martinus, Nijhoff, The Hague, 2002)

The Mental Element in International Criminal Law: The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and the Elements of Offences, 12 CRIM. L.F. 291 (2001), German translation, Subjektive Merkmale im Völkerstrafrecht: Das Römische Statute des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofs und die Verbrechenselemente, 114 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR DIE GESAMTE STRAFRECHTSWISSENSCHAFT 372 (2002) (Thomas Weigend trans.)

Crimes Against Humanity and the International Criminal Court, in Roger Clark, Ferdinand Feldbrugge & Stanislaw Pomorski eds., INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL LAW IN RUSSIA AND EASTERN EUROPE: ESSAYS IN HONOR OF GEORGE GINSBURGS 139 (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 2001), reprinted in Mauro Politi & Guiseppe Nesi eds., THE ROME STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: A CHALLENGE TO IMPUNITY 75 (Ashgate/Dartmouth, Aldershot, 2001)

Foreword to Angie Zelter ed., TRIDENT ON TRIAL: THE CASE FOR PEOPLE'S DISARMAMENT (Luath Press, Edinburgh, 2001)

The ICC Statute: Protecting the Sovereign Rights of Non-Parties, in Dinah Shelton ed., INTERNATIONAL CRIMES, PEACE AND HUMAN RIGHTS: THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (Transnational Publishers, Ardsley, New York, 2000)

How International Human Rights Law Affects Domestic Law, in Adamantia Pollis & Peter Schwab eds., HUMAN RIGHTS: NEW PERSPECTIVES, NEW REALITIES 185 (Reinner, Boulder & London, 2000)

East Timor, Indonesia and the International Community, 14 TEMPLE INT'L & COMP. L.J. 75 (2000)

Creating a Statute for the International Criminal Court: A Jurisdictional Quandary, 22 SUFFOLK TRANSNAT'L L. REV. 461 (1999)

Several entries, in Otto Triffterer ed., COMMENTARY ON THE ROME STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT, OBSERVERS' NOTES, ARTICLE BY ARTICLE (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden Baden, Germany, 1999)

Steven Spielberg's 'Amistad' and Other Things I have Thought About in the Past Forty Years: International (Criminal) Law, Conflict of Laws, Insurance and Slavery, 30 RUTGERS L.J. 371 (1999)

Preamble and Final Clauses, in Roy Lee ed., THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: THE MAKING OF THE ROME STATUTE, ISSUES, NEGOTIATIONS, RESULTS 421 (Kluwer, The Hague, 1999) (with Tuiloma Neroni Slade)

Apartheid, in M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., I INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW (CRIMES) 643 (Transnational Publishers, Ardsley, 2d ed., New York, 1999)

Human Rights Strategies of the 1960s Within the United Nations: A Tribute to the Late Kamleshwar Das, 21 HUMAN RIGHTS Q. 308 (1999)

Treaty and Custom, in Laurence Boisson de Chazournes & Philippe Sands eds., INTERNATIONAL LAW, THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS 171 (Cambridge, England, 1999)

Obligations of Third States in the Face of Illegality: Ruminations inspired by the Weeramantry Dissent in the Case Concerning East Timor, in Antony Anghie & Garry Sturgess eds., LEGAL VISIONS OF THE 21ST CENTURY: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF JUDGE CHRISTOPHER WEERAMANTRY 631 (Kluwer, The Hague, 1998)

East Timor and An International Criminal Court, in Pedro Pinto Leite ed., THE EAST TIMOR PROBLEM AND THE ROLE OF EUROPE 95 (IPJET, Lisbon, 1998)

Toward an International Criminal Court, in Yael Danieli, Elsa Stamatopoulou & Clarence Dias eds., THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS: FIFTY YEARS AND BEYOND 99 (Baywood, Amityville, 1998) (with David Tolbert)

Countering Transnational and International Crime: Defining the Agenda, in Peter J. Cullen & William C. Gilmore ed., CRIME SANS FRONTIERES: INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LEGAL APPROACHES 20) (HUME PAPERS ON PUBLIC POLICY, Vol. 6, Nos 1 & 2 (1998))

Methods of Warfare that Cause Unnecessary Suffering or Are Inherently Indiscriminate: A Memorial Tribute to Howard Berman, 28 CAL. WEST. INT'L L.J. 379 (1998)

The Proposed International Criminal Court: Its Establishment and Its Relationship with the United Nations, 8 CRIM. L.F. 411 (1997), reprinted in 2 MEDITERRANEAN J. HUM. RTS 127 (1998)

The Case Concerning Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America) B Preliminary Objection, 10 LEIDEN J. INT'L L. 541 (1997)

Nuremberg and Tokyo in Contemporary Perspective, in Tim McCormack & Gerry Simpson eds., THE LAW OF WAR CRIMES: A SYNTHESIS OF NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL APPROACHES 171 (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1997)

Public International Law and Private Enterprise: Damages for a Killing in East Timor, 3 AUSTRALIAN J. HUMAN RIGHTS 21 (1996), shorter version in Paddy Ireland & Per Laleng, THE CRITICAL LAWYERS' HANDBOOK 2 (Pluto, London, 1997)

The Laws of Armed Conflict and the Use or Threat of Use of Nuclear Weapons, 7 CRIM. L. FORUM 265 (1996)

Coping with Ultimate Evil through the Criminal Law, 7 CRIM. L. FORUM 1 (1996) (with Madeleine Sann)

The 1985 United Nations Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, in G. Alfredsson & P. Macalister-Smith eds., THE LIVING LAW OF NATIONS, ESSAYS ON REFUGEES, MINORITIES, INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF OTHER VULNERABLE GROUPS IN MEMORY OF ATLE GRAHL-MADSEN (N.P. Engel, Kehl am Rhein, 1996)

Issues of Implementation and Coordination, in Yael Danieli, Nigel S. Rodley & Lars Weisaeth eds., INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES TO TRAUMATIC STRESS 425 (Baywood, New York, 1996) (with Daniel Nsereko)

The 'Decolonization' of East Timor and The United Nations Norms on Self-Determination and Aggression, and The Substance of the East Timor Case in the ICJ, Chapters in INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE QUESTION OF EAST TIMOR (CIIR & IPJET, London, 1995)

United Nations Standards and Norms in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, 5 J. TRANSNAT'L L. & CONTEMP. PROB. 287 (1995)

Foreword, TOWARD A RIGHT TO PEACE: SELECTED PAPERS OF JOHN H.E. FRIED vii (Altheia Press, Northampton, Mass., 1994)

Stocktaking after Two Sessions of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, 4 CRIM. LAW FORUM 471 (1993), reprinted in M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF SPECIALIZED INSTITUTES AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS TO THE UNITED NATIONS CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROGRAM. IN HONOR OF ADOLFO BERIA DI ARGENTINE (Kluwer, The Hague, 1995)

Timor Gap: The Legality of the "Treaty on the Zone of Cooperation in an Area Between the Indonesian Province of East Timor and Northern Australia," [1992] PACE YB INT'L L. 69, reprinted in Peter Carey & G. Carter Bentley eds., EAST TIMOR AT THE CROSSROADS. FORGING OF A NATION (Cassell, London, 1995)

Some International Law Aspects of the East Timor Affair, 5 LEIDEN J. INT'L L. 265 (1992), reprinted as The East Timor Affair in International Law, 4 CAMÕES CENTER QUARTERLY 25 (1992-93)

United Nations Model Treaties on Cooperation in the Criminal Process, 18 COMMONWEALTH L. BULL. 1544 (1992)

Criminal Code Reform in New Zealand? A Martian's view of the Erewhon Crimes Act 1961 with some footnotes to the 1989 Bill, 21 VICT. U. OF WELLINGTON L. REV. 1 (1991)

Crime: The UN Agenda On International Cooperation in the Criminal Process, 15 NOVA L. REV. 475 (1991)

Crimes Against Humanity at Nuremberg, and Codification of the Principles of the Nuremberg Trial and the Subsequent Development of International Law, in G. Ginsburgs & V. Kudriavtsev eds., THE NUREMBERG TRIAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW 177 & 249 (Kluwer, The Hague, 1990)

The Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, Cuba August 27-September 7, 1990, 1 CRIM. L. FORUM 513 (1990)

Foreword and Constitutionalism and Palau's Self-Determination: A Lawyer's Perspective, in B. Aldridge & C. Myers, RESISTING THE SERPENT: PALAU'S STRUGGLE FOR SELF-DETERMINATION xiii & 197 (Fortkamp, Baltimore, 1990)

Human Rights and the U.N. Committee on Crime Prevention and Control, 506 THE ANNALS 68 (1989)

State Terrorism: Some Lessons From the Sinking of the "Rainbow Warrior", 20 RUTGERS L.J. 393 (1989)

Free Association - A Critical View, in P. Leary ed., PROCEEDINGS: CONFERENCE ON THE FUTURE STATUS OF THE UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS, UNIVERSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS (1989)

The Committee on the Rights of the Child: Who Pays? in C. Cohen ed., INDEPENDENT COMMENTARY: UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD 59 (Defense for Children International, New York, 1988) (with F. Gaer), updated version in 7 N.Y.L.S.J. HUMAN RIGHTS 123 (1989).

Offenses of International Concern: Multilateral State Treaty Practice in the Forty Years Since Nuremberg, 57 Nordic J. Int'l L. 49 (1988)

"Termination" of the Pacific Islands Trust, 81 AMERICAN J. INT'L L. 927 (1987)

International Human Rights Law, in R. Janosik ed., I ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE AMERICAN JUDICIAL SYSTEM 334 (Scribner's, New York, 1987)

The Crime of Apartheid, in M. Bassiouni ed., I INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 299 (Transnational Publishers, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1986)

Preventing and Combating Intolerance of Religion or Belief, WORLD ORDER, Winter 1985-86, 19

East Timor and International Law, 2 MENNESKER OG RETTIGHETER (Norway) 32 (1984)

Approaching a No Fault or Uninsured Motorist Claim, and Statutory Basis of No Fault and Uninsured Motorist Systems, Chapters 1 and 2 of NO FAULT/UNINSURED AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE (Matthew Bender, New York, 1984)

Models of National or Local Action to Prevent or Combat Intolerance of Religion or Belief, Background Paper for United Nations Seminar on the Encouragement of Understanding, Tolerance and Respect in Matters Relating to Religion or Belief, Geneva, December l984, U.N. Doc. HR/GENEVA/l984/BP.3 (l984)

Transnational Legal Problems of Refugees, l7 VANDERBILT J. TRANSNAT'L L. l79 (1984) (review essay on 1982 MICHIGAN YEARBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES)

Humanitarian Intervention, Help to Your Friends and State Practice, 13 GA. J. INT'L & COMP. L. 211 (1983)

The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, 31 CHITTY'S L. J. 23 (l983)

Human Rights and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 10 INT'L J. LEGAL INFO. 287 (1982)

State Terrorism: Disappearances, 13 RUTGERS L.J. 531 (1982) (with Maureen R. Berman)

International Human Rights Fact Finding: The Role of Legal Representation, in B. G. Ramcharan ed., INTERNATIONAL LAW AND FACT FINDING IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN RIGHTS (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1982)

Does the Genocide Convention Go Far Enough? (Symposium on Genocide and Humanicide) 8 OHIO NORTHERN L.J. 321 (1981)

The International League for Human Rights and South West Africa - 1947 1957 - The Human Rights NGO as Catalyst in the International Legal Process, 3(4) HUMAN RIGHTS Q. 101 (1981)

The "Decolonization" of East Timor and the United Nations Norms on Self Determination and Aggression, 7 YALE J. WORLD PUB. ORDER 2 (1980)

Self Determination and Free Association B Should the United Nations Terminate the Pacific Islands Trust? 21 HARV. INT'L. L.J. 1 (1980)

Legal Principles of Non Socialist Economic Integration as Exemplified by the European Economic Community, 8 SYRACUSE J. INT'L L. & COMMERCE 1 (1980)

Enforcement of International Human Rights Law: The Role of Lawyers, 28 CHITTY'S L.J. 4 (1980)

The United Nations and Religious Freedom, 11 N.Y.U.J. INT'L L. & POL. 197 (1978)

Some Developments in New Jersey Criminal Law, in Proceedings of the Prosecutors' Institute (Delaware Law School, Widener College, Wilmington, Del., 1977) mimeo

Measures to Protect Religious Freedom, in L. Sohn & M. Galey eds., NEW ASPECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS, TWENTY FIFTH REPORT OF THE COMMISSION TO STUDY THE ORGANIZATION OF PEACE 36 (Stanley Foundation, N.Y., 1977) (summary of working paper prepared for Commission, mimeo, 1976)

No Fault in Delaware, 6 Rutgers Camden L.J. 225 (1974), updated version in Widiss, Little, Clark, Jones, NO FAULT AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE IN ACTION (Oceana, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1977) (with G. Waterson)

The First Twenty Five Years of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights B And the Next, 48 CONN. BAR J. 111 (1974) (originally published in English and French as working paper for World Peace Through World Law Conference, Abidjan, 1973) (with Leo Nevas)

The U. N. and Human Rights: Some Modest Proposals, 59 A.B.A.J. 1393 (1973) (with Leo Nevas)

Some Jurisprudential Questions on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, in Report of the Human Rights Committee, Conference on Non Governmental Organizations in Observance of the 25th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (N.Y., 1973)

Medina: An Essay on the Principles of Criminal Liability for Homicide, 5 RUTGERS CAMDEN L.J. 59 (1973)

Disorderly Behavior, in S. Webb and J. Collette eds., NEW ZEALAND SOCIETY: CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES 361 (Wellington, 1973)

The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands: Some Perspectives, 1973 PROC. AM. SOC'Y INT'L L. 17

Meetings, Processions, Symbolic Speech and the Law, [1972] N.Z.L.J. 209, 249

A Jurisprude Looks at the Road Toll, 2 OTAGO L. REV. 441 (1972)

Overmastering Physical Force, 14 CRIM. L.Q. (Canada) 413 (1972)

Accident: Or What Became of Kilbride v. Lake? in R. Clark ed., ESSAYS ON CRIMINAL LAW IN NEW ZEALAND 47 (1971)

Police Powers to Seize and Detain Goods and Documents, [1971] N.Z.L.J. 153

Police Power to Arrest Without Warrant, [1970] N.Z.L.J. 176

Hans Kelsen's Pure Theory of Law, 22 J. LEGAL ED. 170 (1970)

The Defence of Impossibility and Offences of Strict Liability, 11 CRIM. L.Q. (Canada) 154 (1969)

Broadcasting and Private Enterprise: The Proposed Broadcasting Authority, 30 N.Z.J. PUB. ADMIN. 29 (1968)

Automatism and Strict Liability, 5 VICT. U. OF WELLINGTON L. REV. 12 (1968)

Chapters 1, 2, 4 & 5 of J. Robson ed., NEW ZEALAND: THE DEVELOPMENT OF ITS LAWS AND CONSTITUTION (Stevens, London, 1967) (with C. C. Aikman and K. J. Keith)

Strict Liability Offences of Possession, [1967] N.Z.L.J. 182

Some Developments in Administrative Law, 29 N.Z.J. PUB. ADMIN. 48 (1967) (with C. C. Aikman)

Some Developments in Administrative Law, 28 N.Z.J. PUB. ADMIN. 96 (1966) (with C. C. Aikman)

Some Developments in Administrative Law, 27 N.Z.J. PUB. ADMIN. 45 (1965) (with C. C. Aikman)

The Geneva Accords and the Two Vietnams, in M. Bassett ed., NEW ZEALAND AND SOUTH EAST ASIA 12 (Auckland, 1965)

French Tests and International Law, NEW ZEALAND MONTHLY REVIEW, No. 52, 5 (1964-5)

Reports:

REPORT OF THE COMMISSION OF EXPERTS ON REFORMING INTERNAL JUSTICE AT THE UNITED NATIONS (with Geoffrey Robertson and Ousmane Kane) (New York, 2006)

REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL OBSERVER MISSION, PALAU REFERENDUM, DECEMBER 1986 (with A. Boss, E. Hammerich, S. Roff & D. Wright) (International League for Human Rights & Minority Rights Group, New York, 1987)

Compiled and Edited:

SYMPOSIUM, INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW, Vol. 5, No. 2, TRANSNAT'L L. & CONTEMP. PROB. (Iowa City, Iowa, 1995) (with Ved Nanda)

DEMOCRACY IN SOUTH KOREA: A PROMISE UNFULFILLED (A REPORT ON HUMAN RIGHTS l980 l985) (New York, l985, for the International League for Human Rights and the International Human Rights Law Group) (general editor and contributor)

MICRONESIA: THE PROBLEM OF PALAU, Minority Rights Group Report No. 63 (New York, 1984, rev. ed. 1987) (with S. Roff)

CONSTITUTIONS OF DEPENDENCIES AND SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTIES: THE TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS, A. Blaustein and E. Blaustein eds., (Oceana, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1982) (successor volumes on the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau, 1988)

CONSTITUTIONS OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD: NEW ZEALAND, A. Blaustein and G. Flanz eds., (Oceana, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1985)

CONSTITUTIONS OF DEPENDENCIES AND SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTIES: NEW ZEALAND TERRITORIES, A. Blaustein and E. Blaustein eds., (Oceana, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1985)

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