By Lucy Cox, Reference and Foreign Law Librarian Rutgers-Camden School of Law Library
This Guide will give information for both print and on-line sources. Because official printed versions of treaties are extremely slow in coming out, on-line sources have become very important for recent treaty information. Throughout this guide, the call numbers for print sources are given after the electronic site information if both versions are available in the law library. The library has in recent years ceased obtaining print versions of many treaty publications, so for recent treaty information, on-line sources are usually the only option.
Hein Online Treaty Library http://www.heinonline.org/HOL/Index?collection=ustreaties (Accessible from within the Law Library only or by users authorized to access network). Because it provides access to so many important treaty publications, this major database is probably the best starting place for anyone looking for treaty information. It provides electronic access to most of the important treaty publications which also exist in print format in the library. Call numbers indicating library locations follow the titles, for users wishing to use the print versions instead of/or in addition to the on-line versions. The listing below does not include all of the many items to be found on the Hein Online Treaty Library site. Full Text Sources Available from HeinOnLine and in Print in Law Library.
Treaties and Other International Acts Series (T.I.A.S.) 5th floor. JX236. (Also available in Microfiche. Cabinet 25. Ask at reference desk.) Also available on Westlaw for those who have a password. Westlaw database: USTreaties. (More on Westlaw below). T.I.A.S. pamphlets are the first official publications of U.S. treaties. Usually, one pamphlet contains one treaty. They are assigned a T.I.A.S.number by the Dept. of State, which is a basic identifying symbol when searching for treaties in some indexes. They were issued by the Dept. of State since 1945. Usually each pamphlet consists of one treaty. As of early 2007, the print versions of T.I.A.S. do not go beyond 1996. The Dept. Of State web-site has T.I.A.S. treaties 1996 and 1997. (More on Dept. of State site below) The library also has T.I.A.S. pamphlets in microfiche, from Hein, on Reserve, Cabinet 25. Please ask a reference librarian to obtain. The HeinOnLine site includes all published T.I.A.S. treaties, through 1996. United States Treaties and other International Agreements . (U.S.T.) 5th floor. JX231.A34 (Print volumes in library through v.35, pt. 6).This set contains the T.I.A.S. pamphlets after they are cumulated into hard-bound volumes. This set began in 1950. Before then, treaties and other international agreements were published in (see below).
Statutes At Large. 3d floor, New section, KF50.U58. Vols. 7 and 8 include all treaties between 1776-1845. Afterward, treaties were published in the STAT volumes for each Congressional session.
Treaties, Conventions, International Acts, Protocols, and Agreements Between the United States of America and Othr Powers (Malloy). 5th floor JX236 1910c. This set contains treaties between 1776-1932.
Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949, compiled under the direction of Charles I. Bevans. 5th floor JX236 1968; Microfiche (Reserve, Cabinet?) This 13-volume compilation set was published by the State Department and is considered an important tool for historical research on texts of treaties contained in it.
Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Сompiled by Charles Kappler. 3rd floor KF8203. 1978 Earlier edition 1972. Set contains treaties concluded by the United States with Indian tribes between 1779-1883.
Basic Finding Aids or Indexes from Hein OnLine and in Print in Law Library.
Treaties in Force (TIF) 5th floor JX236 1929c Latest version also available from State Dept. Site (more below). Published annually by the Dept. of State, Treaties in Force is the official listing of what U.S. treaties are in force on January 1 of the year of publication. It is divided into 2 parts, one for bilateral, the other for multilateral treaties and agreements. Bilateral treaties are found by looking under the other country that is party to the treaty besides the United States. However, if you want to know whether the U.S. is party to a multilateral agreement, you must look under subject. For example, if you look under "marine pollution", you will find a listing of all the multilateral agreements in regard to this matter that the United States has entered into. Treaties in Force gives the the place where the signing of the treaty took place, and date of entry into force. For multilateral treaties, a list of countries which are parties to the treaties is also given.
A Guide to the United States Treaties in Force 5th floor JX236 1982 K3 Last print version in library is 1999. This commercial publication includes more indexing features than the official Treaties in Force, including chronological and numberical indexes. Recent treaties which have not yet been officially published are listed with “KAV” numbers, which are retrievable from HeinOnLine. They are also available in microfiche, Cabinet 25. Ask a librarian.
United States Treaty Index: 1776-2000 Consolidation 5th floor JX 231.U58 This multi-volume set gives citations to locations of the texts of treaties and pertinent information on the treaties and international agreements the U.S. has entered into since 1776. Like the Guide listed above, it has multiple access points to enable you to find a treaty by using numerical, country, international organizations, chronological, geographic, or subject indexes to find location of a treaty. Again, treaties indicated by "KAV" are available on HeinOnLine, and are also available in microfiche Cabinet 25. Ask a librarian for retrieval.
U.S. Dept. Of State Treaty Affairs Available at: http://www.state.gov/s/l/treaty The State Dept. Site provides a rich array of information, particularly on recent treaty developments. It gives T.I.A.S. treaties for 1996 and 1997. It provides the latest Treaties in Force. Information on treaties which have entered into force too late to be published in the latest Treaties in Force issue is given under Treaty Actions. Another informative feature of the State Dept site is Treaties Pending in the Senate, which gives information on treaties submitted to the Senate for its advice and consent by the President, but which were never ratified. The oldest of these goes back to 1949! This site also has useful links to other treaty sites, including the International Atomic Energy Commission and the International Maritime Organizations. The site also has Multilateral Treaties for which the United States is Depository, as well as some other interesting features regarding treaties.
Westlaw Treaties. Full text. Database ID: USTREATIES Password access only. Westlaw has treaties from1778 to the present. Westlaw also provides Treaties in Force Database ID: USTIF 5. United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.)
5th floor JX170.U35 Accessible from within Rutgers Law Library-Camden only or to users with authorized access to network. Accessible from library home page ”Restricted Area.” This set contains multilateral, as well as bilateral treaties. The Blue Book requires that the citation to the U.N.T.S. is given, along with official U.S. treaty sources such as U.S.T., for multilateral treaties. The library stopped getting print copies with v.1454. 6. League of Nations Treaty Series (L.N.T.S.) 5th floor JX170.L4 Accessible from within Rutgers Law Library-Camden only to to users with authorized access to network. Access from law library home page “Restricted Area.” This set preceeded the United Nations Treaty Series , just as the League of Nations preceded the United Nations. The United States was not a member of the League of Nations, but did submit treaties to this body.
International Legal Materials (ILM), 4th floor. Periodicals. This bi-monthly is a useful source for recent treaties and background information. Some Other Suggestions For Finding Treaties.
Governmental departments and International Organizations dealing with certain topics are often providers of treaties in that area. For example, tax treaties are available from the Internal Revenue Service http://www.irs.gov/businesses/international/index.html Go to “Income Tax Treaties” on left side of screen. The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Section_Index.html provides a listing of trade related treaties and agreements. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ provides a listing of intellectual property treaties.
Select the “Keyword” option from the law library catalog and type in “treaties” and a defining word. You might retrieve such titles as Tax Treaties or International Litigation and Arbitration: Selected treaties, Statutes and Rules.
Remember that works dealing with a specific topic will sometimes include relevant treaties. For example, Nimmer on Copyright includes copyright treaties.
Although not focused specifically on U.S. treaties, the Treaties section of the Foreign/International Law Page available from the the left side of the Law Library Home Page lists sources of treaties which might be useful.