RUTGERS SCHOOL OF LAW AT CAMDEN
ACADEMIC RULES AND REGULATIONS

As of July 24, 2013

Topic 1: Introduction
Rule 1.1: Scope of Rules     
Rule 1.2: Ignorance No Excuse    
Rule 1.3: "Academic Year" Defined    
Rule 1.4: "Professor" Defined   
Rule 1.5: "Senior" Defined   

Topic 2: Summary of Requirements for Graduation    
Rule 2.1: Requirements for Graduation    

Topic 3: Course Credit Requirements   
Rule 3.1: Courses Taken at This Law School     
Rule 3.2: Credit for Transfer Students    
Rule 3.3: Students Taking Courses Elsewhere    
Rule 3.4: Courses Taken Elsewhere    
Rule 3.5: Non-Course Credit     
Rule 3.6: Duplication    
Rule 3.7: Repeated Courses    
Rule 3.8: Class Attendance     
Rule 3.9: Denial of Course Credit     
Rule 3.10: Directed Research    
Rule 3.11: Distance Education    

Topic 4: Grades   
Rule 4.1: Grading System Effective Through Summer Session, 2001    
Rule 4.1A: Grading System In Effect Beginning Fall Semester, 2001    
Rule 4.2: Grades That do Not Count in Determining a Student's Cumulative Average     
Rule 4.3: Calculation of Grade-Point Average     
Rule 4.4: Grade Mean and Distribution Requirements for First-Year Courses
Rule 4.5: Grade Mean and Distribution Requirements for Upper-Class Courses
Rule 4.6: Effective Date    

Topic 5: Minimum and Maximum Time Periods   
Rule 5.1: Minimum and Maximum Time Periods     

Topic 6: Required Courses
Rule 6.1: Required Courses for Full-Time Students   
Rule 6.2: Required Courses for Part-Time Students  
Rule 6.3: Part-Time Students in Special Situations 

Topic 7: Upper Level Writing Requirement  
Rule 7.1: Required Upper Level Writing Credit    
Rule 7.2: Calculation of Upper Level Writing Credit    
Rule 7.3: Courses Qualifying for Writing Credit     
Rule 7.4: Upper Level Writing Credit for Directed Research, Pro Bono Research, Law Journal Writing, and for Writing Completed as Part of a Dual Degree Program    
Rule 7.5: Certification of Upper Level Writing Credit as Intensive  
Rule 7.6: Upper Level Writing Credit for Law School Courses Taken Elsewhere
Rule 7.7: Waivers for Students Completing Part of Their Degree Requirements Elsewhere  
Rule 7.8:  Denial of Writing Credit  

Topic 7A: Upper Level Lawyering Skills Requirement
Rule 7A.1: Required Upper Level Lawyering Skills Instruction  
Rule 7A.2: Courses Qualifying as Upper Level Lawyering Skills Courses    
Rule 7A.3: Waivers for Students Completing Part of Their Degree Requirements Elsewhere    
Rule 7A.4: Denial of Upper Level Lawyering Skills Course Credit                  

Topic 8: Course Credit Requirements for Each Semester and Summer Session
Rule 8.1: Full-Time and Part-Time Students     
Rule 8.2: Course Loads for Part-Time Students    
Rule 8.3: Course Loads for Full-Time Students    
Rule 8.4: Non-Course Credit    
Rule 8.5: Allocation of Credit for Activities Extending Over More Than One Semester    
Rule 8.6: Course Loads for Summer Sessions    
Rule 8.7: Non-Matriculated Students    
Rule 8.8: Auditing Courses    
Rule 8.9: Clinics and Externship    
Rule 8.10: Distance Education    

Topic 9: Grading Practice
Rule 9.1: Basis for Grading    
Rule 9.2: Anonymous Grading    
Rule 9.3: Grading on the Basis of Writing Assignments, Presentations or Lawyering Skills Assignments     
Rule 9.4: Grading Adjustments on the Basis of Class Participation,  Writing and Lawyering Skills Assignments    

Topic 10: Grade Appeals     
Rule 10.1: Exclusivity of This Procedure    
Rule 10.2: Procedure for Grade Changes    

Topic 11: Academic Standing and Dismissal    
Rule 11.1: Classification of Students    
Rule 11.2: Requirements to be Considered in Good Standing    
Rule 11.3: Students on Warning   
Rule 11.4: Students on Probation     
Rule 11.5: Denial of Course and Writing Credit   
Rule 11.6: Requirements After Readmission on Probation   
Rule 11.7: Graduation While on Probation   
Rule 11.8: Previously Dismissed Students   
Rule 11.9: Repeat Petitions 
Rule 11.10: Requirements for Program Approval   
Rule 11.11: Course Requirements for Students in Academic Difficulty   

Topic 12: Repeated Courses
Rule 12.1: F's in Required Courses    
Rule 12.2: D's or D+’s in Required Courses    
Rule 12.3: Repeating Elective Courses    
Rule 12.4: Section Assignments  
Rule 12.5: Additional Repeated Courses   
Rule 12.6: Consequences of Repeating a Course  

Topic 13: Failure to Take Final Examination or Complete Other Course Requirements
Rule 13.1: Deadline for Completing Course Requirements    
Rule 13.2: Course Requirements Other Than Taking a Final Exam    
Rule 13.3: Course Requirement of Taking a Final Exam    
Rule 13.4: Consequences of Grade of INC.   
Rule 13.5: Enrollment not Required to Make up Missed Requirements  
Rule 13.6: Making up Missed Exams    
Rule 13.7: Consequences of Not Making up the Exam   

Topic 14: Credit for Study Elsewhere  
Rule 14.1: General Provisions    
Rule 14.2: Dual-Degree Programs    
Rule 14.3: Graduate Credits Other Than in a Dual-degree Program   
Rule 14.4: Students Visiting Elsewhere   
Rule 14.5: Courses Taken Elsewhere  
Rule 14.6: Writing and Lawyering Skills Credit for Courses Taken Elsewhere
Rule 14.7: Individual Study Abroad at Non-ABA Accredited Institutions  

Topic 15: Registration and Program Changes and Withdrawal
Rule 15.1: Registration    
Rule 15.2: Changes in Course Load  
Rule 15.3: Petitions for Leaves of Absence and Withdrawals   
Rule 15.4: Consequences of Leave of Absence and Withdrawal  
Rule 15.5: Responsibility for Deciding on Petitions  
Rule 15.6: Re-admission of Students Granted Withdrawals or Leaves of Absence    
Rule 15.7: Repeat Petitions   
Rule 15.8: Enrollment Limits in Courses and Seminars   

Topic 16: Scholastic Honors  
Rule 16.1: Dean's Scholars and Dean's List    
Rule 16.2: Honors at Graduation  
Rule 16.3: Computation of Class Rank    

Topic 17: Committee on Academic Petitions   
Rule 17.1: Composition   
Rule 17.2: Jurisdiction    
Rule 17.3: Procedures    
Rule 17.4: Appeals    
Rule 17.5: Report to the Faculty    

Topic 18: Committee on Scholastic Standing   
Rule 18.1: Composition    
Rule 18.2: Jurisdiction   
Rule 18.3: Procedures   
Rule 18.4: Appeals   
Rule 18.5: Report to the Faculty   
Rule 18.6: Repeat Petitions    

Topic 19: Procedures for Changing the Rules
Rule 19.1: Procedure in General    
Rule 19.2: Exceptions   

Topic 20: Transition Provisions
Rule 20.1: Effective Date    
Rule 20.2: Credit Previously Earned   
Rule 20.3: Omitted Provisions    
Rule 20.4: Interpretation    

Appendix A    

Former Topic 7: Writing Requirement As In  Effect Prior To Summer Session, 2008
Rule 7.1: Required Writing Credit   
Rule 7.2: Calculation of Writing Credit  
Rule 7.3: Courses Qualifying for Writing Credit     
Rule 7.4: Number of Writing Credits    
Rule 7.5: Writing Credit for Directed Research   
Rule 7.6: Writing Credit for Courses Taken Elsewhere   
Rule 7.7: Denial of Writing Credit   
Rule 7.8: Waivers for Students Completing Part of Their Degree Requirements Elsewhere    

Topic 1: Introduction

Rule 1.1: Scope of Rules.

(a) These regulations set forth the Academic Rules of Rutgers School of Law-Camden. These Rules apply to all students first enrolling in law school (whether at this institution or another ABA-accredited institution) in the Fall Semester, 1994, and later.

(b) Students who enrolled in law school (whether at this institution or another ABA-accredited institution) prior to the Fall Semester, 1994, shall be governed by the Rules published in the Student Handbook, 1993-1994.

Rule 1.2: Ignorance No Excuse. Every member of the law school community covered by these Rules is responsible for complying with them. Ignorance is not an excuse.

Rule 1.3: "Academic Year" Defined. The term "academic year" is defined to mean a student's first two semesters completed in law school, and each pair of two semesters completed thereafter. Summer sessions are not considered as part of an academic year. No semester shall be considered as part of more than one academic year. A semester during which a student withdraws from all of his or her classes, or obtains a leave of absence, does not count as part of an academic year.

Rule 1.4: "Professor" Defined. The term "professor" as used in these Rules means an assistant professor, associate professor, professor or professor II, with a tenured or tenure-track appointment, adjunct professors, instructors (as defined in University Regulations), lecturers, clinical and legal writing faculty, and the legal externship program director.

Rule 1.5: "Senior" Defined. The term "senior" means a student who has completed two-thirds of his or her legal education. A student has completed two-thirds of his or her legal education if the student can graduate in two additional full-time semesters or three part-time semesters.
 

Topic 2: Summary of Requirements for Graduation

Rule 2.1: Requirements for Graduation. To be graduated, a student must be recommended for graduation by the Faculty. To be eligible to be recommended for graduation, a student must:

(a) Earn 84 course credits in accord with the regulations of Topic 3 of these Rules;

(b) Earn a cumulative grade-point average of C (2.0) (2.33 for students entering this law school after May 1, 2010) , computed in accord with the requirements of Topic 4 of these Rules;

(c) Earn a C (2.0) average (2.33 for students entering this law school after May 1, 2010) , computed in accord with the requirements of Topic 4, in the student's final academic year (or, in the case of a student graduating after an odd number of semesters, the student's final semester);

(d) Meet the minimum and maximum time periods of Topic 5 of these Rules.;

(e) Meet the curricular requirements of Topic 6  and, to the extent applicable, Topic 11 of these Rules;
    
(f) Comply with the upper level writing requirement of Topic 7 of these Rules; and

(g) Comply with the upper level skills requirement of Topic 7A of these Rules.

Topic 3: Course Credit Requirements
    
Rule 3.1: Courses Taken at This Law School.

(a) All courses taken for credit and passed at this law school shall count towards the course credit requirement of Rule 2.1(a). Repeated courses shall count as specified in Rule 3.7.

(b) To receive credit for courses taken at Rutgers, the student must be properly registered in accord with the requirements of Topic 15.

Rule 3.2: Credit for Transfer Students. A student who has transferred from another law school may apply towards graduation, subject to the limitation of Rule 3.4, only those courses successfully completed at another institution and approved by the Committee on Admissions for credit. Such approval shall be given when, in the Committee's judgment, it is warranted by the content of the course and the student's performance in it.

Rule 3.3: Students Taking Courses Elsewhere. A student may apply towards the course credit requirement credit for courses at other institutions (including summer sessions) and graduate courses to the extent allowed in Topic 14 and Rule 3.4.

Rule 3.4: Courses Taken Elsewhere. A student may not apply towards the course credit requirement more than 41 credits for courses taken at other institutions under Rules 3.2 and 3.3. This limitation applies to courses taken at other law schools (whether prior, simultaneous or subsequent to enrollment at this law school, and whether in summer sessions or otherwise) and to courses taken at graduate schools (whether or not as part of a joint degree program pursuant to Rule 14.2). All other provisions of these Rules that allow credit for courses taken elsewhere are subject to this limitation.

Rule 3.5: Non-Course Credit.

(a) A student may apply towards the course credit requirements up to twelve non-course credits.

(b) Non-course credits consist of the Hunter Moot Court Board, Externship Program, Law Journal, Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion, Journal of Law and Urban Policy, Teaching Assistant for Legal Analysis, Writing and Research,  and such extra-mural moot court programs and additional non-course activities as are approved by the Faculty for non-course credit and so designated in the law school catalog or semi-annual pre-registration materials.

(c) Credit for a non-course activity shall be conferred on a pass/no credit basis (except for Teaching Assistant for Legal Analysis, Writing & Research, which shall be graded as a course) by the faculty advisor designated by the Dean for that activity. Each activity shall publish, as expeditiously as practicable after the adoption of these Rules, standards for conferring credit. Until an activity has published such standards, the standards in the Academic Rules (as they existed on July 1, 1994) shall continue to be effective.

(d) A student may be dropped from a non-course activity if the faculty advisor determines that the student has missed an excessive number of required activities.

Rule 3.6: Duplication. Work performed in one course or activity for credit may not be duplicated to earn credit in another. Factors used in determining whether work is duplicative shall include the extent to which additional work was undertaken which justifies credit, and the extent of disclosure that the work had been previously used.

Rule 3.7: Repeated Courses. Courses repeated under Topic 12 are counted for credit only the last time taken and passed.

Rule 3.8: Class Attendance.

(a) A student must attend regularly to receive credit for courses.

(b) A professor may consider a student not to be attending regularly if the student misses a number of class hours exceeding the number of units for which the course is offered.

(c) A professor shall excuse without penalty students who are absent because of religious observance and allow the make-up of work missed on account of such absence.

(d) If a student is not attending regularly, the professor may exclude the student from the examination (or, in the case of a seminar, deny the student the opportunity to submit a seminar paper) in which case the student shall be awarded a grade of F.

(e) Students may not register for a course which is scheduled in such a way that attendance at each and every class hour is impossible because of a conflict with another course or activity for which the student is registered.

Rule 3.9: Denial of Course Credit.

(a) All course credit shall be denied for any academic year in which the student fails to earn a 2.0 average. Beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year, all course credit shall be denied for any academic year in which the student fails to earn a 2.33 average.

(b) A student may petition the Committee on Scholastic Standing for restoration of course credit denied under (a) in either of the following situations:

1. if the student is in good standing as defined in Rule 11.2.; or

2. if the student has a 2.0 average (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year) in the student's most recent two semesters and restoration of course credit would give the student sufficient course credits to graduate.

(c) The Committee shall restore course credit if the Committee finds that restoration is appropriate given the student's academic record.

(d) Restored credit may reflect only courses that were passed and not subsequently repeated.

(e) Petitions for restoration of writing credit shall be subject to Rule 7.8.

Rule 3.10: Directed Research.

(a) A student in good standing (as defined in Rule 11.2) who has at least  28 degree credits may undertake directed research in a semester or summer session. Such research shall be undertaken under the supervision of a professor. An adjunct professor with special qualifications in the subject matter of the research may serve as supervisor with the approval of the Dean. The supervising professor shall specify, at the time of registration, whether the research is being undertaken for one or two credits.

(b) In deciding whether to supervise a directed research project, the professor may take into account all pertinent factors including, but not limited to, the nature of the topic, its relation to other offerings in the curriculum, the interests, background and abilities of the student, the student's academic record, and the student's ability to perform independent work. No professor is obligated to agree to supervise a directed research project. No professor may supervise more than five students in a single semester or summer session except with the permission of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.

(c) Students may not register for more than one directed research project in any one semester or summer session, nor enroll in more than two directed research projects overall.

(d) Directed research shall be graded by the supervising professor. Directed research may be taken on a credit/no credit basis if approved by the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.

(e) In accord with Rule 7.4(a), a two credit graded directed research project is eligible for writing credit which may be certified as intensive if the requirements of Rule 7.5 are met.

Rule 3.11: Distance Education.

(a) A student may apply toward the course credit requirement up to twelve credits earned through distance education.

(b) Distance education is an educational process characterized by the separation, in time or place, between professor and student.  It includes courses offered principally by means of

(1) technological transmission, including Internet, open broadcast, closed circuit, cable, microwave, or satellite transmission;

(2) audio or computer conferencing;

(3) video cassettes or discs; or

(4) correspondence.

(c) Each semester the Dean or the Dean’s designee shall list on the schedule the  courses that constitute distance education as described in (b).

(d) In the case of transfer students or students seeking credit for courses at other institutions pursuant to Topic 14, the Dean or Dean's designee (which may include an appropriate committee) shall inform the student of which courses taken elsewhere constitute distance education subject to this Rule and Rule 8.10. In the case of a student who is seeking credit pursuant to Topic 14, the student shall be entitled to a determination in advance of taking the course.

(e) Limits on the number of distance education credits that can be taken in a
semester or summer session may be found in Rule 8.10.
    
Topic 4: Grades

Rule 4.1: Grading System Effective Through Summer Session, 2001. Grades for terms up to and including the Summer Session, 2001, were given according to the following system:

A+     (4.5)
A     (4.0) - Outstanding
B+     (3.5)
B     (3.0) - Good
C+     (2.5)
C     (2.0) - Satisfactory
D+     (1.5)
D     (1.0) - Poor
F         (0) - Failing

Rule 4.1A: Grading System In Effect Beginning Fall Semester, 2001.

(a) Effective Fall Semester, 2001, grades shall be given according to the following system:

A+     (4.33)
A     (4.00) - Outstanding
A-     (3.67)
B+    (3.33)   
B     (3.00)- Good
B-     (2.67)
C+      (2.33)
C        (2.00)- Satisfactory
C-     (1.67)
D+      (1.33)
D        (1.00) - Poor
F      (0) - Failing
        

(b) Transcripts reflecting work done before the Fall Semester, 2001, and work done that semester or thereafter, shall refer to a clear and prominent statement that grades given before that time are weighted in accord with the previous grading system, the intention being that no grades given before the Fall Semester, 2001 be disparaged by adoption of the new grading system as to future semesters. The Dean shall require appropriate steps to make clear this intention and to clearly explain the change in grading system to potential employers, including those who list jobs on campus, those who interview on campus, judges to whom students apply for clerkships, and all other employers to whom students apply for positions.

Rule 4.2: Grades That do Not Count in Determining a Student's Cumulative Average.

(a) The following grades do not affect a student's cumulative average: N, S, U, INC, Pass, No Credit, TZ or W.

(b) The grades listed in (a) are given under the following circumstances:

1. N                Used when a student enrolls in or audits a course which extends over two semesters, but for which no course credit is granted in the first semester. Such a grade will be changed after the second semester in accord with Rule 8.5.

2. Pass or No Credit

Used for pass/fail activities. It indicates whether credit has been granted for the course.

3. S or U
(Satisfactory or
                Unsatisfactory)Grading symbols used when students audit courses with faculty permission under Rule 8.8.
4. INC                Incomplete. Used when a student has been excused from taking the final examination or submitting a required paper. A student who has received such a grade is subject to the provisions of Topic 13.

5. TZ                 TZ is a temporary grade that may be assigned to any Camden campus student who: (1) Never attended the course section for which he/she is registered; or (2) attended for a time and stopped without officially withdrawing. TZ grades will convert to an “F” in approximately six months if no grade change is processed under procedures prescribed by the Dean.

6. W                Withdrawn without evaluation. This symbol is used when a student has withdrawn from a course after a semester's "Drop/Add" period and with permission of the proper authority under Topic 15.

(c) Grades in courses taken elsewhere shall not be considered in calculating grade-point average.

Rule 4.3: Calculation of Grade-Point Average.

    (a) A student's grade-point average (whether cumulative, or for a semester, summer session, or academic year) shall be the numerical equivalent of his/her final grade (as weighted in accord with the grading system in effect when the course was taken) for each course taken at this law school graded on an A-F basis multiplied by the number of credit hours assigned to the course and divided by the total number of credit hours taken at this law school in courses graded on an A-F basis.

(b) The calculation shall be carried to the fourth decimal place and then rounded off so as to be expressed in three decimal places as follows:

1.    Whenever the fourth decimal is a five or more, the third decimal shall be increased by one.

2.    Whenever the fourth decimal is a four or less, the third decimal shall not be altered.

Rule 4.4: Grade Mean and Distribution Requirements for First-Year Courses

(a) The mean grade-point average in first-year courses shall be between 3.00 and a 3.10. This shall include adjustments for class participation.

(b) Faculty are strongly encouraged to give 60% of grades in the B range (B+, B, B-) and no more than the higher of one A+ or 3% A+’s.

(c) Grades with means outside the range set forth in (a) shall not be accepted except with the Dean’s permission. The professor grading the course must substantiate the justification for grading outside this range.  The Dean’s permission shall be granted sparingly.

(d) Legal Analysis, Writing and Research I is subject to the requirements of (a) through (c). In the case of Legal Analysis, Writing and Research II, the required range is from 3.10 to 3.20, with the same recommended distribution as in (b). A professor teaching two sections of either Legal Analysis I or II may combine sections for purposes of determining compliance with the requirements of this subsection.

(e) The courses subject to this section are those listed in Rules 6.1(a) and (b), and 6.2(a), (b) and (c).  Summer sections of the courses are subject to this section.

Rule 4.5: Grade Mean and Distribution Requirements for Upper-Class Courses.

(a) The mean grade-point average in upper-class courses of more than 30 students shall be between 3.20 and 3.30.  This shall include adjustments for class participation. .

(b) The mean grade point average in courses with 10 to 30 students shall be between a 3.10 and 3.40. This shall include adjustments for class participation.
    
(c) In courses subject to this rule,  the strongly recommended distribution is the same as in Rule 4.4(b)

(d) Grades outside the ranges stated in (a) and (b) shall not be accepted except in compliance with Rule 4.4(c)
    .
(e) Summer sections of the courses listed in (a) and (b) are subject to this sectipn.

(f) Courses with fewer than 10 students, clinics,  and courses in which intensive writing credit or skills credit is mandatory are exempt from this rule.

Rule 4.6: Effective Date. Rules 4.4 and 4.5 shall take effect with the summer session 2011.

Topic 5: Minimum and Maximum Time Periods

Rule 5.1: Minimum and Maximum Time Periods The course of study for the J.D. must be completed no sooner than 24 months and not later than 84 months after a student has commenced law study at this law school or a law school from which this school has accepted transfer credit.

Topic 6: Required Courses

Rule 6.1: Required Courses for Full-Time Students. Full-time students shall take:

(a) Civil Procedure, Contracts, Torts, and Legal Analysis, Writing and Research I in their first semester of enrollment;
        
(b) Constitutional Law, Criminal Law, Property and Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research II  in their second semester of enrollment;

(c) Professional Responsibility in the third or later semester of enrollment.

Passing grades in the courses listed in (a) through (c) shall be required for graduation.

Rule 6.2: Required Courses for Part-Time Students.

Part-time students shall take:

(a) Civil Procedure, Torts, and Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research I in their first semester of enrollment:

(b) Contracts, Property and Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research II in their second semester of enrollment;

(c) Constitutional Law and Criminal Law in their third semester of enrollment;

(d) Professional Responsibility in their third or later semester of enrollment.

Passing grades in the courses listed in (a) through (e) shall be required for graduation.

Rule 6.3: Part-Time Students in Special Situations.

(a) The Associate Dean for Academic Affairs may vary the provisions of Rule 6.2 for part-time students.

(b) In the case of students commencing the study of law in the summer, the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs shall prescribe the order in which the courses listed in Rules 6.1 and 6.2 shall be taken.

(c) In the case of transfer students who enter without having taken all of the courses listed in Rules 6.1 and 6.2,  the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs shall prescribe the order in which the courses listed in Rule 6.1 and 6.2  shall be taken.

(d) All students must complete the courses listed in Rules 6.1 and 6.2 (other than Professional Responsibility) no later than the fourth semester after they commence the study of law.  The Associate Dean for Academic Affairs may waive this rule for students who transfer into the law school after their fourth semester.

Topic 7: Upper Level Writing Requirement

Rule 7.1: Required Upper Level Writing Credit.  

(a) A student must earn three upper level writing credits (W), as calculated under this Topic, as a condition of graduation.  At least one of these credits must be intensive (WI) as defined in Rule 7.5.

(b) These rules:

(1) Apply in their entirety to all students who have not earned any writing credits under the prior rules (found in Appendix A), and

(2) Do not apply to students who, by the end of the spring semester 2008, completed their writing requirements under the prior rules.  
 
(c) Students who, by the end of the Spring Semester, 2008, have earned one or more writing credits, but have not completed their  writing requirements under the prior rules, are subject to the following requirements:

(1) Students who, by the end of the spring semester 2008, have earned one to three writing credits must earn two  upper level writing credits under these rules, one  of which must be intensive as defined in Rule 7.5, unless the student receives the certification described in Rule 7.1(d)..  If the student receives certification, the student must complete two upper level writing credits, which may be either intensive or not.
 
(2) Students who, by the end of the spring semester 2008, have earned 4 to 6 writing credits must earn one upper level writing credit under these rules, which must be intensive as defined in Rule 7.5, unless the student receives certification as described in Rule 7.1(d). If the student receives certification, the student must complete two  upper level writing credits, which may be either intensive or not.  

(3) Students who, by the end of the spring semester 2008, either have

(i) Earned seven or eight writing credits (without regard to the prior rules' maximum limits on counting more than five writing credits in an academic year or more than four writing credits in a summer session) or

(ii) Earned nine or more writing credits but, because of the prior rules’ maximum limits on counting more than five writing credits in an academic year or more than four writing credits in a summer session, have not satisfied the writing requirements for graduation under the prior rules,                                                       

must earn one intensive upper level writing credit under these rules, unless the student receives the certification described in Rule 7.1(d).  If the student receives certification, the student need not complete any further upper level writing credits.

(d) Faculty members who have offered two or three credit writing experiences (as calculated under the prior rules)  in past semesters that would meet the requirements of Rule 7.5 may submit retroactive certification of completion of the intensive upper level writing credit requirement on behalf of the student or students whose writing they supervised.         

(1) Certification shall be in the sole discretion of the faculty member, provided that if the faculty member is unavailable, a student may seek administrative certification.

(2) A student who receives certification at the faculty member’s initiative or who obtains and submits to the registrar individual certification in writing or via electronic submission in accordance with these rules and policies and procedures established by the Dean shall be deemed to have satisfied the intensive upper level writing credit requirement.        

(3) A student who receives certification as described in this provision must nonetheless complete the total number of upper level writing credits specified in rule 7.1(c) and illustrated in the accompanying table.

(e) The dean will establish policies and procedures to govern the transition, including certifications under Rule 7.1(d).  






If total writing credits earned under prior rules by end of spring semester 2008 are: To graduate without Rule 7.1(d) certification (for intensive writing already completed), # of writing credits that must be earned / # of these that must be writing-intensive (W-I) are: # of writing credits  (each of which may , but need not be, W-I) required to graduate, with Rule 7.1(d) certification are:
1-3 2/1 2
4-6* 1/1 1
7-8* 1/1 0

9, but not finished under prior rules*#

1/1 0

* Credit numbers in this table are calculated without regard to the prior rules’ limits on counting more than five credits in an academic year or four credits in a summer session.
# Any student who has earned nine credits under the prior rules without exceeding the prior rules’ limits on the amount of writing credit that can be received in an academic year and summer session is not covered by the new rules.  See rule 7.1(b) (2).             

Rule 7.2: Calculation of Upper Level Writing Credit.

(a) No more than two upper level writing credits in any academic year, as defined in Rule 1.3,  may be counted towards the requirement for three upper level writing credits.  In accord with that rule, a summer session does not count as part of an academic year.
                        
(b) No more than one upper level writing credit in any single summer session may be counted toward the upper level writing credit requirement.

(c) Nothing in this Rule bars a student from taking as many upper level writing credits and intensive upper level writing credits in a semester, year or summer session as the student chooses.

Rule 7.3: Courses Qualifying for Writing Credit.

(a) The Dean shall designate each semester a list of the courses approved by the Dean for upper level writing credit.  The list of courses shall specify whether either upper level writing credit or intensive writing credit (as defined in Rule 7.5) is offered and whether credits of either type are optional or required.

(b) Courses offering an upper level writing credit:

(1) Are directly supervised by a professor or, in an externship program,  by a field supervisor.

(2) Require the student to complete individual or collaborative written work or works that, if taken in a graded course, constitute a substantial portion of the basis for the final grade pursuant to Rules 9.1, 9.3 and 9.4: and either

(A) Total at least 5000 words (excluding footnotes) in final draft, or

(B) In the case of the drafting of pleadings, briefs, motions, legislation or other legal documents totaling less than 5000 worlds in final draft, involve feedback from the professor or field supervisor who is supervising the course.

(3) Comply with other requirements prescribed by the Dean consistent with these Rules to assure a sound educational experience.

(4) A student who has not satisfactorily completed the writing assignments required for upper level writing credit in a course shall not receive upper level writing credit for the course.

(c) First-year courses (Civil Procedure, Constitutional Law, Contracts, Criminal Law, Legal Analysis, Writing & Research I and II,  Property and Torts) and directed research taken on a credit-no credit basis may not qualify for writing credit.

Rule 7.4: Upper Level Writing Credit for Directed Research, Pro Bono Research, Law Journal Writing, and for Writing Completed as Part of a Dual Degree Program

(a) Students receiving course credit for a two credit graded directed research project referred to in Rule 3.10 may receive one upper level writing credit, which may be certified as intensive if the criteria of Rule 7.5 are satisfied.  

(b) Notwithstanding other provisions of Rule 7.3, a student who completes a Pro Bono Research Project that satisfies the requirements of rule 7.3 (b)(2) may receive one upper level writing credit.  Such credits may be certified as intensive, in accordance with the provisions of Rule 7.5, provided that the professor supervises no more than a total of five students in that semester for directed research and intensive pro bono research combined, except with the permission of the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs.  No more than one upper level writing credit awarded under this subsection may be counted toward the upper level writing credit requirements for graduation.
 
(c) Notwithstanding Rule 7.3, a student who completes a substantial piece of writing for, and is certified and receives credit for two semesters of participation in the Rutgers Law Journal, The Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion or the Rutgers Journal of Law and Public Policy may receive one upper level writing credit upon certification by the faculty advisor pursuant to the policies of each law journal as well as those prescribed by the Dean.  No more than one upper level writing credit awarded under this provision may be counted toward the upper level writing credit requirements for graduation.  

(d) Notwithstanding Rule 7.3, a student who earns a dual degree under Rule 14.2 shall receive one upper level writing credit for the totality of the writing done in that degree program subject to the terms of the law school’s approval of the dual degree program and policies prescribed by the Dean.   

Rule 7.5: Certification of Upper Level Writing Credit as Intensive.

(a) A professor may certify upper level writing credit earned pursuant to Rules 7.3 and 7.4 (a) and (b) as intensive if:

(1) The student has already successfully completed Legal Analysis Writing and Research I and II;

(2) The opportunity to earn intensive upper level writing credit for the course is limited to no more than fourteen students or the course has a ratio of no more than twenty students per instructor;

(3) Writing assignments have as one goal the development of writing proficiency, the instructor provides oral or written individualized feedback, and students complete additional drafts of one or more assignments or develop writing proficiency through a sequence of writing assignments; and

(4) The final product demonstrates facility in legal writing appropriate to upper level law study and the professor concludes that the writing experience satisfies ABA Law School Accreditation Standard 302 (a) (3) and Interpretation 302-1 (requiring one rigorous upper level writing experience and specifying factors for consideration in determining which experiences qualify).

(b) For Pro Bono  Research Projects or externships, both the field supervisor and the supervising faculty member (for externships, the externship director) must certify satisfaction of this rule.

Rule 7.6: Upper Level Writing Credit for Law School Courses Taken Elsewhere. Courses taken while enrolled at another ABA-approved law school may be counted for writing credit with the permission of the Committee on Academic Petitions. Permission of the Committee must be obtained in advance in the case of a student visiting elsewhere under Topic 14.

Rule 7.7: Waivers for Students Completing Part of Their Degree Requirements Elsewhere.

(a) The Committee on Academic Petitions may waive the requirement for three upper level  writing credits and for one intensive upper level writing credit for students who (by reason of starting their legal education elsewhere, or by reason of visiting other institutions under Topic 14) complete part of their degree requirements elsewhere.

(b) Such a waiver may be granted if the student shows that the student earned upper level writing credit at this and other institutions to the extent possible and that application of the requirements of this Topic would cause unreasonable hardship.

(c) Under this section, the Committee may, in lieu of or in addition to waiving the required number of writing units, waive the academic year limits of Rule 7.2.

Rule 7.8Denial of Writing Credit.

(a) All upper level writing credit shall be denied for any academic year in which the student fails to earn a 2.0 average. Beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year, all writing credit shall be denied for any academic year in which the student fail to earn a 2.33 average.

(b) A student may petition the Committee on Scholastic Standing for restoration of upper level writing credit denied under (a) in either of the following situations:

1. if the student is in good standing as defined in Rule 11.2.; or

2. if the student has a 2.0 average (2.33 begining with the 2010-2011 academic year) in the student's most recent two semesters and restoration of upper level writing credit would give the student sufficient writing credits to graduate.

(c) The Committee shall restore upper level writing credit if the Committee finds that restoration is appropriate given the student's academic record.

(d) Restored credit may reflect only courses that were passed and not subsequently repeated.

Topic 7A: Upper Level Lawyering Skills Requirement

Rule 7A.1: Required Upper Level Lawyering Skills Instruction. A student must complete at least one Upper Level Lawyering Skills Course (as defined in this Topic),  receiving a grade of C- or better, as a condition of graduation.  This requirement applies  to all students who commenced law school study (whether at this or another law school) after the end of the spring semester 2007.

Rule 7A.2: Courses Qualifying as Upper Level Lawyering Skills Courses.

(a) The Dean shall designate each semester a list of the courses approved by the Dean as Upper Level Lawyering Skills (LS) courses.

(b) Upper Level Lawyering Skills Courses:

(1) Involve instruction in lawyering skills (as defined in (c)) that is directly supervised by a professor or by a field supervisor as part of an externship program;

(2) Provide lawyering skills instruction either

(A)As a component of live client representation in an in-house clinical setting;

(B) In a practice-based externship as that term is further defined by the externship director;

(C) In an upper level writing course focused on lawyering skills, in a simulation course where the primary objective is to teach lawyering skills, or in a doctrinal course with a substantial lawyering skills simulation component, provided that the course

(i) Provides repeat opportunities for individual performance by each student of one or more lawyering skills with individualized feedback from the instructor; or

(ii) Requires individual performance by each student of a series of lawyering skills as part of a sequential lawyering experience, with one or more of  such performances receiving individualized feedback from the instructor; and  

(iii)) If the course is graded, lawyering skills performance is a substantial part of the student’s grade for the course;
        
(3) Are capped at twenty five or fewer students per instructor; and

(4) Comply with other requirements prescribed by the Dean consistent with these Rules to assure a sound educational experience.

(c) The term “lawyering skills” means interviewing, counseling, negotiation, methods of alternative dispute resolution, legislative and other legal drafting, trial and appellate advocacy and trial and pre-trial practice and similar activities.

(d) A students enrolled in an  Upper Level Lawyering Skills course may receive upper level writing credit for the same course if the criteria for the award of writing credit are  satisfied.  The writing credit shall be intensive if the requirements of Rule 7.5 are satisfied.

(e)  Completion of Civil Procedure, Constitutional Law, Contracts, Criminal Law, Legal Analysis Writing and Research I and II, Property and Torts, even if such courses include lawyering skills components, does not satisfy the Upper Level Lawyering Skills Course requirement.

Rule 7A.3: Waivers for Students Completing Part of Their Degree Requirements Elsewhere.

(a) The Committee on Academic Petitions may waive the requirement for an Upper Level Lawyering Skills course for students who (by reason of starting their legal education elsewhere, as a result of enrollment in and completion of a dual degree program under Rule 14.2 or by reason of visiting other institutions under Topic 14) complete part of their degree requirements elsewhere.

(b) Such a waiver may be granted if the student shows that the student sought upper level lawyering skills instruction at this and other institutions to the extent possible and that application of the requirements of this Topic would cause unreasonable hardship.

Rule 7A.4: Denial of Upper Level Lawyering Skills Course Credit.

(a) Credit for satisfying the Upper Level Lawyering Skills course requirement shall be denied for any academic year in which the student fails to earn a 2.0 average (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year).

(b) A student may petition the Committee on Scholastic Standing for restoration of credit denied under (a):

(1) If the student is in good standing as defined in Rule 11.2.; or

(2) If the student has a 2.0 average in the student’s most recent two semesters and restoration of the credit would allow the student to graduate.

(c) The  committee shall restore credit for the satisfaction of the Upper Level Lawyering Skills Course requirement if the  committee finds that restoration is appropriate given the student’s academic record.

(d) Restored credit may reflect only courses for which the student received a grade of C- or better and not subsequently repeated.
    
Topic 8: Course Credit Requirements for Each Semester and Summer Session

Rule 8.1: Full-Time and Part-Time Students.

(a) Students, at the time of initial registration, shall designate themselves as either "full-time" or "part-time."

(b) Any student seeking to designate himself or herself as fulll-time must certify that he or she is not working more than fifteen hours per week during the school year. Such certification must be renewed every semester. All students not so certifying will be considered part-time students. Students wishing to transfer from part-time to full-time status must similarly certify.

Rule 8.2: Course Loads for Part-Time Students.

(a) Part-time students must enroll in at least eight course credits each semester, but may not enroll in more than eleven course credits.

(b) A part-time student who needs less than eight course credits to fulfill the course credit requirements to graduate may enroll for less than eight course credits in a semester if the student is in good standing.

Rule 8.3: Course Loads for Full-Time Students. Full-time students must enroll in at least twelve course credits each semester, but may not enroll in more than sixteen course credits.

Rule 8.4: Non-Course Credit. A student may, subject to Rule 3.5, enroll in and participate in up to three non-course credit activities each semester, so long as the three activities combined do not add up to more than six non-course credits in any one semester.

Rule 8.5: Allocation of Credit for Activities Extending Over More Than One Semester.

(a) When a course or other credit program extends over two semesters, half of the credit shall be allocated to each semester for the purpose of compliance with this Topic.

(b) Pending the completion of the second semester, a student enrolled in such a course shall receive a grade of N for the first semester. Such a grade carries no course credit. At the end of the second semester, a grade of Pass or No Credit shall be substituted.

Rule 8.6: Course Loads for Summer Sessions. A student may earn up to eleven credits during the summer, provided that:
    
(a)  A student who has certified that he or she is not employed more than fifteen hours per week may not be enrolled for more than eight credits at any one time;

(b) A student who is not so certified may not be enrolled for more than five credits at any one time..

Rule 8.7: Non-Matriculated Students. Non-matriculated students may, with the Dean's permission, take fewer than eight course credits in any semester.

Rule 8.8: Auditing Courses.

(a) Students may, with the permission of the professor, enroll in a course as auditors.

(b) Courses in which the student is enrolled as an auditor are taken into account in determining whether the student has exceeded the maximum number of course credits which may be taken, but are not taken into account in determining whether the student has complied with the minimum number of course credits which must be taken in a semester.

(c) Courses in which the student is enrolled as an auditor shall appear on the student's law school transcript, but no credit shall be given for such a course.

(d) A student enrolled as an auditor need not take the final examination, but is responsible for all other work required of students in the course.

(e) A student may be given either a grade of S (satisfactory) or U (unsatisfactory) for an audited course. If an audited course extends over two semesters, then the student shall receive a grade of N for the first semester. At the end of the second semester, a grade of S or U shall be substituted for the grade of N.

(f) Nothing in this rule is intended to bar a student from attending a course, with the professor's permission, as an informal auditor.
    
Rule 8.9: Clinics and Externship. A student may not take any Externship and Clinic simultaneously, except that a student in an Advanced Clinic may also enroll in an Externship with the permission of both instructors.  

Rule 8.10: Distance Education.

(a) A student may, subject to Rule 3.11, enroll each semester or summer session in up to four credits of distance education.

(b) Distance education shall have the same meaning in this Rule as in Rule 3.11.

Topic 9: Grading Practice

Rule 9.1: Basis for Grading.

(a) Evaluation of student performance shall, in primary part, be based on written work, such as written examinations, research papers, drafting exercises, or briefs. In addition, student performance may be evaluated on demonstrated ability to investigate, counsel, interview, negotiate, litigate, and to perform other lawyering activities.  Courses that satisfy the upper level lawyering skills course requirement may be graded on any combination of written work and lawyering skills activities determined by the professor to be pedagogically  appropriate.  

(b) Each course shall include anonymous evaluation elements (such as, but not limited to, a written examination or anonymously-submitted paper) that count at least fifty percent  of a student's grade. The foregoing sentence does not apply to seminars, practice courses, upper-level courses with fewer than twenty-five students, or other courses exempted by the Faculty.

(c) Any requirements of a course in addition to or other than taking a final examination shall be announced during the first week of classes along with the anticipated weight of such requirements.

(d) Any final examination shall be given at the date designated in the examination schedule (or, in the case of a take-home exam, due on the date on the examination schedule, except if announced otherwise by the professor in the first week).

Rule 9.2: Anonymous Grading. A professor shall submit grades by examination number in any course in which the grade is based in whole or part on an examination. The procedure for obtaining examination numbers shall be specified by the Administration. The identity of the individual corresponding to the exam number shall not be disclosed by the Administration until after grades have been submitted in all courses. No student shall reveal, directly or indirectly, his or her identity or that of any other student on an examination or other anonymously-graded activity.

Rule 9.3: Grading on the Basis of Writing Assignments, Presentations or Lawyering Skills Assignments.

(a) In courses covered by Rule 9.1(b), grades on the basis of writing assignments, presentations or lawyering skills assignments maybe calculated under either Rule 9.3(b) or under Rule 9.4

(b) If a course includes a final examination, grades under the preceding subsection must be submitted in advance of the date of the final examination. Grades for the final examination shall be submitted anonymously. The Administration shall sum the scores, using the weights assigned by the professor, and shall return the summed scores, listed by exam number, to the professor for the assignment of grades.

Rule 9.4: Grading Adjustments on the Basis of Class Participation,  Writing and Lawyering Skills Assignments.,

(a) A professor may base a grade in part on evaluation of class participation, writing assignments or lawyering skills assignments  provided notice is given by the professor during the first week of class of his or her intention to reserve the right to do so.

(b) An evaluation for class participation, writing or lawyering skills  may move the student's grade up or down by no more than one-third grade.  In no case may a student’s grade move up or down by more than one-third grade as a result of such evaluation.

(c) Since there is no grade between D and F, an evaluation of class participation may neither change what would otherwise be a grade of D to an F, nor change what would otherwise be a grade of F to a D.

(d) If the course includes an examination or other anonymously-graded elements, any evaluation for class participation, writing, or lawyering skills  must be submitted before the anonymity of such elements has been lifted.

(e) This rule applies only in courses in which a written examination or examinations count at least half (50%) of a student's grade. In all other courses, a professor may give such weight to class participation as seems appropriate, provided Rule 9.1 is complied with.

Topic 10: Grade Appeals

Rule 10.1: Exclusivity of This Procedure. Once a grade (other than an INC or a TZ) has been submitted by the professor, it may be changed only as provided in this Topic.

Rule 10.2: Procedure for Grade Changes. A student, with the concurrence of the professor, may request in writing that the Dean alter a grade. Such request may be granted only upon a demonstration that an arithmetical or other ministerial error (e.g. overlooking the existence of a bluebook) occurred in the course of grading.

Topic 11: Academic Standing and Dismissal

Rule 11.1: Classification of Students. At the end of each semester, each student shall be classified as either:

(a) in good standing;

(b) on warning; or

(c) re-admitted on probation.

Rule 11.2: Requirements to be Considered in Good Standing. The following students shall be considered to be in good standing:

(a) Any student in his or her second semester of enrollment who has earned a 2.0 average (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year) in the first semester of enrollment(including the preceding summer session in the case of a first-year student);

(b) Any student who, after attending for an even number of semesters, has earned a cumulative 2.0 average (2.33 for students enrolling in this law school after May 1, 2009) and a 2.0 average (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year) in his or her previous academic year;

(c) Any student who has attended for an odd number of semesters greater than one if the student complied with (b) at the end of the student's most recent academic year and earned a 2.0 average (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year) in the student's most recent semester of enrollment.

Rule 11.3: Students on Warning.
(a) A student shall be considered to be on warning if the student fails to earn a 2.0 average (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year) for the first semester of an academic year (including the preceding summer session in the case of a first-year student). Such a student may not enroll in the Clinic Programs, or the Externship Program, or participate in external Moot Court or Mock Trial or similar competitions, or serve on law school committees, and shall be subject to such additional limitations as may be imposed by the Committee on Scholastic Standing, either by rule or in individual cases, as deemed necessary or appropriate for the student's legal education.

(b) At the end of the next semester of enrollment, the student shall be re-classified as either in good standing or as dismissed.

Rule 11.4: Students on Probation.

(a) A student who earns less than a 2.0 average (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year) in an academic year shall be dismissed. For purposes of this subsection, summer grades earned preceding the first semester shall be considered part of the first academic year. Any re-admission shall be on probation.

(b) A dismissed student may be re-admitted only by petitioning the Committee on Scholastic Standing for re-admission on probation.

(c) The Committee may grant such a petition if it finds that the student has demonstrated sufficient potential so that if re-admitted there would be substantial likelihood that the student would satisfactorily complete his or her law studies. In addition, the Committee may, in its discretion, consider whether and to what extent the student has complied with the Rules and Regulations of the law school. In deciding whether to grant such a petition, or a petition under Rule 11.8, the Committee shall consider all relevant facts shown by the student or otherwise presented to it. Relevant facts include those that bear on the student's aptitude, motivation for legal studies, or work habits, on any circumstances that have interfered with the student's performance in law school, on means that were available for ameliorating such circumstances, and on the likelihood that such circumstances will not exist in the future. The Committee may also consider the student's performance at the law school and in previous education, as well as the student's work history. The student has the burden of demonstrating all facts necessary to support a petition for re-admission.
 
(d) A student on probation is subject to the same restrictions as a student on warning. The student shall also abide by such other restrictions as may be imposed, either by rule or in individual cases, by the Committee on Scholastic Standing as the Committee may consider appropriate or necessary for the student's legal education.

Rule 11.5: Denial of Course and Writing Credit. A student who earns less than a 2.0 average (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year) in an academic year does not earn either course or writing credit for the year (including the preceding summer session in the case of a first-year student). Such course or writing credit may be restored under Rule 3.9 and Rule 7.8.

Rule 11.6: Requirements After Readmission on Probation. A student who has been re-admitted on probation shall remain on probation for an academic year. Such a student must earn a 2.0 average (2.33 with respect to students dismissed in the Spring of 2011 and later)  within the next academic year and must, at the end of that year, have a cumulative average of 2.0 (2.33 beginning with the 3010-2011 academic year. The provisions of Topic 12 (relating to repeated courses) shall apply to the calculation of the student's cumulative average. If a student meets both these conditions as of the end of the next academic year, the student shall be considered in good standing.

Rule 11.7: Graduation While on Probation. A student on probation may graduate at the end of one semester on probation provided that:

(a) The student earns a 2.0 average (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year)  in that semester;

(b) The Committee on Scholastic Standing agrees, pursuant to Rules 3.9 and 7.8 to restore lost course and writing credit sufficient to render the student eligible for graduation; and

(c) The student meets all other requirements for graduation.

Rule 11.8: Previously Dismissed Students. If a student fails more than once to earn a 2.0 average  (2.33 with respect to students dismissed beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year) in an academic year, or if a student fails, following an academic year on probation, to attain a cumulative average of 2.0 (2.33 beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year),  the student shall be dismissed and a strong presumption shall apply against re-admission. The presumption is rebuttable by the student only by a strong showing of very exceptional circumstances. The student has the burden of demonstrating all facts necessary to support the showing.

Rule 11.9: Repeat Petitions.

(a) A student who has been denied re-admission under this Topic may again petition the Committee after a waiting period of at least two academic semesters.

(b) The Committee, in denying either an initial or repeated petition, may shorten the period in (a) to a semester, or lengthen it to a maximum of six semesters depending on the strength of the student’s presentation and the reasons why the student’s petition was denied.

(c) A student petition to be re-admitted prior to the expiration of the waiting period may be heard only if the student demonstrates in writing that the student’s circumstances have changed so much that a new hearing is appropriate. The Committee need not hold a hearing on attempts to make such a demonstration.

(d) This rule applies only to petitions that are heard after the date of adoption of this rule, March 10, 2004.
    
Rule 11.10: Requirements for Program Approval.

(a) A student who has a cumulative average in the bottom quartile of students in his or her class year is required to have his or her courses approved for the next academic year.

(b) The Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, the Associate Dean of Students, the Director of Academic Success, and the Chair of the Committee on Scholastic Standing shall determine a process to evaluate and approve student course selections.

(c) A student's choice of courses for a semester may be approved only if the student's overall schedule is not overwhelming, builds on demonstrated strengths, and is geared toward assisting the student to achieve both academic success and entry into the profession of law.

Rule 11.11: Course Requirements for Students in Academic Difficulty

(a) A student must enroll in Critical Legal Analysis if he or she:

(1) has earned 28 or fewer credits as of the end of the Spring Semester in which the student was most recently enrolled; and

(2) has a cumulative grade point average in the bottom quartile of all students who have earned 28 or fewer credits as of the end of that semester.

(b) A student who is in the class scheduled to graduate the following Spring must enroll in Fundamentals of Legal Analysis in his or her final Spring semester if, as of the end of the registration period in the preceding Fall semester, the student has a cumulative grade-point average in the bottom quartile of students scheduled for graduation at the end of that semester.

(c) A student may be excused from either of these classes for good cause as determined by the Director of Academic Success and the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.

Topic 12: Repeated Courses

Rule 12.1: F's in Required Courses. A student who receives an F in a required course receives no credit for the course and must repeat the course in the next academic year.

Rule 12.2: D's or D+’s in Required Courses. A student who receives a D or a D+ in a required course may repeat the course in the next academic year.

Rule 12.3: Repeating Elective Courses. A student who receives an F, a D, or a D+  in an elective course may repeat the course.

Rule 12.4: Section Assignments. When a student repeats a course, the student's section assignment is at the discretion of the Administration. The student shall not be assigned to the same professor as the one who gave the original grade unless exigent circumstances exist.

Rule 12.5: Additional Repeated Courses. The Committee on Scholastic Standing may require that a student re-admitted on probation repeat additional courses if the Committee believes this to be in the best interest of the student's legal education.

Rule 12.6: Consequences of Repeating a Course.

(a) When a student repeats a course in accord with this Topic, the student's cumulative average shall be calculated on the basis of the grade received when the course is repeated. The substituted grade shall not affect any lost writing or course credit for the semester in which the course was originally taken, or the student's average for the year in which the course was originally taken. The original grade shall not be taken into account in calculating the student's cumulative average, but shall continue to appear on the student's transcript.

(b) A repeated course counts towards course or writing credit only the last time it is taken and passed.

Topic 13: Failure to Take Final Examination or Complete Other Course Requirements

Rule 13.1: Deadline for Completing Course Requirements. Except as allowed in this Topic, all course and seminar requirements must be completed by the end of the exam period for the term in which the course or seminar is taken.

Rule 13.2: Course Requirements Other Than Taking a Final Exam. In the case of requirements other than taking a final examination, the student may receive permission in writing from the professor to defer the fulfillment of such requirements for good cause. If a student does not receive such permission, the student will be considered to have earned an F for those requirements, and may be awarded an F for the course. If a student receives such permission, the grade of INC will be given. If the requirement has not been fulfilled within the student's next two semesters of enrollment (or such shorter time prescribed in writing by the professor), the student shall be considered to have earned an F for those requirements, and may be awarded an F for the course.

Rule 13.3: Course Requirement of Taking a Final Exam.

(a) If the course requires the student to take and pass a final examination, the student may be excused in advance of the examination for good cause by the Dean of Students. If a student receives such permission, the grade of INC will be given.

(b) "Good cause", as used in (a), means an incapacitating medical condition (as documented by a physician according to the requirements of the Dean of Students), family emergency or religious observance. The Administration may publish procedures for establishing "good cause."

(c) A student who fails without excuse to take a final examination shall be considered to have earned an F on the examination, and may be given an F for the course.

Rule 13.4: Consequences of Grade of INC. When a student has received a grade of INC, the student's grade-point average will be calculated without the course and no course credit shall be given for the course.

Rule 13.5: Enrollment not Required to Make up Missed Requirements. A student may take deferred examinations or complete other course requirements excused from a previous semester in a semester in which that student is not enrolled.

Rule 13.6: Making up Missed Exams.

(a) Unless other arrangements are made with the consent of the Dean of Students and the professor teaching the course, exams missed with an excuse shall be made up the next time the course is given, without regard to whether the course is being offered by the same professor.

(b) The Dean of Students and the professor teaching the course may agree to allow a student, in lieu of taking the exam the next time the course is offered, to either:

        1. take the missed examination; or
        2. take a different examination; or
        3. take the examination the next time the professor offers the course if the course will be offered by that professor in the same or following academic year as the course in which the examination was missed.

(c) In an appropriate case, the Dean of Students may allow a student who has missed an exam to withdraw from the course retroactively with a grade of W.

(d) If the student had been scheduled to graduate at the end of the semester in which the examination is missed, the Dean of Students and the professor teaching the course shall allow the student to utilize one of the options in (b), or the Dean of Students shall allow the student, upon the student's request, to withdraw from the course retroactively with a grade of W.

Rule 13.7: Consequences of Not Making up the Exam.

(a) If a student is enrolled in the school the next time the exam is given, and does not make up a missed exam at that time or beforehand, the grade of INC for the course shall convert into an F.

(b) If the student is medically excused from the make-up, then the grade of INC shall not convert into an F, but the student shall not be permitted to enroll for further courses until the exam has been taken.

Topic 14: Credit for Study Elsewhere

Rule 14.1: General Provisions.

(a) Course credit for courses taken elsewhere (other than courses at a law school taken prior to being enrolled at this institution) is given only when:

(1) The student obtains advance permission as required in this Topic; and

(2) The student earns a C (2.0) or better (or the equivalent); and

(3) the student submits an official transcript of the grades in those courses; and

(4) the award of credit would be in accord with the ceiling established by Rule 3.4 and the requirements of this Topic.

(b)    If advance permission as required in this Topic has not been received, the student may receive credit by demonstrating good cause to the Committee on Academic Petitions why it was not possible to obtain advance permission. A student not obtaining advance permission proceeds at his or her risk.

(c)    All graduate courses taken while enrolled in this law school, whether or not for law school credit and whether or not as part of a joint degree program, count towards the restrictions on course credits of Rule 8.3 and in determining whether a student is subject to the restrictions on employment of Rule 8.1.

Rule 14.2: Dual-Degree Programs.

(a) A student in good academic standing may pursue a dual-degree program if the student is admitted both by this law school and the graduate school at which the student wishes to pursue dual-degree studies.
    
(b) Such a program may be pursued either through the programs published in the catalog or, with special permission of the Committee on Academic Petitions, on an individual basis. In deciding whether to grant permission, the Committee shall consider the likelihood of the student's success in such a program and the extent to which the graduate program is related to the study of law.

(c) Such a program shall require the student to spend at the graduate school at least one year in residence, as defined by the graduate school. This does not apply to the dual-degree program with the School of Business-Camden.

(d) A student in a dual-degree program may, if the degree is earned, apply towards the course credit requirements up to twelve course credits and apply towards the writing credit requirements two writing credits. If the degree is not earned, then the student may apply towards the course credit requirements only those credits permitted by Rule 14.3.

(e) The Committee on Academic Petitions shall specify, either by rule or by decision in individual cases, the graduate courses for which law school credit may be conferred. The Committee shall not approve credit for any course that substantially overlaps offerings of the law school.

(f) To receive credit in an approved course, the student must receive a grade of C or better. In the case of the dual-degree program with the School of Public Policy, the student must receive a grade of B minus or better.

(g) The Associate Dean for Academic Affairs shall be responsible for advising students engaged in dual-degree programs.

Rule 14.3: Graduate Credits Other Than in a Dual-degree Program.

(a) Students who are not in an approved dual-degree program may apply towards the course credit requirements up to six course credits for graduate courses taken outside the law school, provided the Committee on Academic Petitions approves the enrollment in advance and that a grade of C is earned.

(b) The Committee shall approve the enrollment if it finds that (1) the student is in good standing; (2) the course does not overlap with any law school course; and (3) the student demonstrates that taking the course is essential to his or her intellectual or practice objectives.

(c) No credit shall be granted for graduate level courses completed prior to enrollment in the law school, or during any period for which the student had been dismissed. In no case under this Rule may a student receive course credit for units that are being applied to earn a degree elsewhere.

(d) Nothing in this Rule is intended to bar students from enrolling in graduate-level courses other than for law school credit. Such enrollment shall be subject to the Rules of the graduate institution in which the student is enrolled.

Rule 14.4: Students Visiting Elsewhere.

(a) A student in good standing may, with the advance permission of the Committee on Academic Petitions, take a summer session or one or more semesters at another ABA-accredited law school. The Committee shall grant such permission if it finds that granting the student permission is in the best interest of the student and this institution. The Committee may consider, among other factors, the nature of the course proposed to be taken, its relationship to the student's course of study at this school, the institution at which the course is offered, the student's academic record at this school, and the student's prior education.

(b) A student visiting elsewhere must receive advance approval from the Committee on Academic Petitions for the student's proposed courses, and earn a C in each such course. The Committee shall approve the proposed courses unless (1) the courses overlap with courses previously taken; or (2) the courses would result in a violation of the Rules (including Rules relating to externships or non-course credit) that would have applied to the student were the student taking the courses at this law school.

(c) In no instance may a student receive more than eight course credits for courses taken in a single summer, or receive credit in excess of the amount permitted by the ABA's Rules regarding the minimum number of class hours necessary to receive credit in a course.

Rule 14.5: Courses Taken Elsewhere.

(a) A student in good standing may, with the advance permission of the Committee on Academic Petitions, take an elective course at another ABA-approved law school in a semester or summer session in which the student is enrolled at this law school. The Committee shall give permission if it finds that granting the student permission is in the best interest of the student and this institution. Credit shall be given only if the student earns a grade of C or higher. The Committee may consider, among other factors, the nature of the course proposed to be taken, its relationship to the student's course of study at this school, the institution at which the course is offered, the student's academic record at this school, and the student's prior education.

(b) The Committee may permit a student in good standing or on warning to take a required course at another ABA-approved institution in a semester when that course is not offered at this institution if denying such permission would result in extraordinary hardship to the student and granting such permission is in the best interest of the student and this institution. Credit shall be given only if the student earns a grade of C or higher. The Committee may consider the factors in subparagraph (a) and may attach such conditions and limitations to such permission as it deems necessary. Such conditions and limitations shall assure the equivalence of any such course to required by Topic 6.

Rule 14.6: Writing and Lawyering Skills Credit for Courses Taken Elsewhere.

(a) Credit toward the writing requirements of Topic 7 or toward the lawyering skills course requirement of 7A may be given for courses taken elsewhere to the extent allowed in those Topics.

Rule 14.7: Individual Study Abroad at Non-ABA Accredited Institutions.

(a) A student may, with the advance permission of the Committee on Academic Petitions, receive credit for courses taken at a foreign institution that provides an academic program leading to a first degree in law.

(b) The student must be in good academic standing, have completed one year of full- or part-time study of law, and demonstrate fluency in the language of instruction at the foreign institution.

(c) The Committee shall grant permission to a student meeting the standards of (b) if it finds that:
(1) the student's study fulfills the educational objectives defined in the Faculty Resolution of May 10, 1995, as amended,

(2) the student's program of study accords with the provisions of these Rules and the requirements of the American Bar Association and the Association of American Law Schools,

(3) the Committee has received written assurance from the foreign institution that the student's proposed educational objectives can be achieved at that institution, and

(4) granting permission is in the best interest of the student and this institution. The Committee may consider, among other factors, the nature of the course proposed to be taken, its relationship to the student's course of study at this school, the institution at which the course is offered, the student's academic record at this school, and the student's prior education.

(d) The Committee shall not allow more than two students to receive credit in the same term for study at a single foreign institution.

(e) If the Committee approves the petition, it shall, after consultation with the Dean, assign the student a full-time faculty member at this institution to effectively monitor the student's course of study, and to develop, in conjunction with the student, a plan that defines the educational objectives sought to be achieved by the student during the period of study abroad, and that specifies the methods to be employed in evaluating the Student's performance.

(f) The student's selection of courses must be approved in advance by the Committee.

(g) The student may receive up to 14 units of course credit for work undertaken under this Rule if all requirements of the American Bar Association and Association of American Law Schools are satisfied. Such course credit shall be awarded if the Committee finds, upon sufficient review of the student's written work, that his or her study has met its educational objectives and those of the parent school. Writing credit may be approved by the Committee to the extent consistent with the requirements of Topic 7.

(h) All aspects of the student's program not governed by these Rules shall be controlled by the American Bar Association's Criteria for Approval of Individual Student Study Abroad for Academic Credit.

Topic 15: Registration and Program Changes and Withdrawal

Rule 15.1: Registration.

(a) A student may receive credit only for courses for which he or she is properly registered.

(b) To be properly registered, a student must abide by the University's and law school's published procedures and pay all required fees and tuition.

(c) Any course or seminar may carry with it requirements established by the professor that a student previously or simultaneously take another course. Except with the permission of the professor, no student may register in the course or seminar without having satisfied the prerequisites.

Rule 15.2: Changes in Course Load.

(a) A student may add courses within the first week of classes.

(b) A student may drop courses (other than courses that are required to be taken in a particular semester) within the first two weeks of classes.

(c) After the first two weeks of classes, and prior to the last two weeks of classes, a student may drop courses with the permission of the Dean of Students. Any such courses shall appear on the student's transcript with the symbol W. If the student withdraws without permission, the student receives a grade of TZ, which shall change to an F six months from withdrawal unless a grade change is processed under procedures prescribed by the Dean.

Rule 15.3: Petitions for Leaves of Absence and Withdrawals.

(a) A student may petition under this Topic for either a leave of absence or a withdrawal. Such a petition may be granted for good cause.

(b) A leave of absence may be granted upon completion of one or more semesters at this law school. A leave of absence will be granted after the commencement of classes only under extraordinary circumstances.
    
(c) A withdrawal may be granted after the commencement of classes. A withdrawal may be granted in or after the last two weeks of classes (in the case of a summer session, the last week of classes) under extraordinary circumstances.

Rule 15.4: Consequences of Leave of Absence and Withdrawal.

(a) A leave of absence, if granted after the commencement of classes, shall retroactively cancel the student’s registration for that semester and entitle the student to a refund of tuition. A student who has received a leave of absence during a semester shall be considered not to have been enrolled for that semester.

(b) A withdrawal shall result in a grade of “W” in the student’s courses, and entitle the student to a pro rata refund of tuition and fees to the extend prescribed by University regulations. A student who withdraws is considered to have been enrolled for the semester in which the withdrawal was taken.

Rule 15.5: Responsibility for Deciding on Petitions.

(a) Petitions for withdrawal or leave of absence from students on warning or re-admitted on probation shall be decided upon by the Committee on Scholastic Standing.

(b) All other petitions for withdrawal or leave of absence shall be decided upon by the Dean of Student Affairs.

(c) The consent of the Dean of the law school is required for any withdrawal or leave of absence during or after the last two weeks of classes until the end of the semester, or during or after the last week of a summer session.

(d) The decision-maker may impose such conditions on the withdrawal or leave of absence, or on the student’s return to school following the withdrawal or leave of absence, as are appropriate.

Rule 15.6: Re-admission of Students Granted Withdrawals or Leaves of Absence.

(a) If the petitioning student is in good academic standing, the Dean of Student Affairs may, in granting the petition, grant the student the right to re-enter within a specified period of time from the date of the leave. In no case may the right to re-enter extend beyond two years from the date of the leave.

(b) If a student in good standing is not granted the right to re-enter, or wishes to re-enter after the expiration of the period for which the right to reenter applied, the student may re-enter only upon approval of the Committee on Admissions.             
(c) If the petitioning student is on warning or re-admitted on probation, then the student may re-enter only upon approval of the Committee on Scholastic Standing.

(d) If the petitioning student has not taken any examinations at this institution, then the student may re-enter only upon approval of the Committee on Admissions.

Rule 15.7: Repeat Petitions.

 (a) A student who has been denied re-admission under Rule 11.6(c) may again petition the Committee on Scholastic Standing after a waiting period of at least two academic semesters.

(b) The Committee, in denying either an initial or repeated petition, may shorten the period in (a) to a semester, or lengthen it to a maximum of six semesters depending on the strength of the student’s presentation and the reasons why the student’s petition was denied.

(c) A student petition to be re-admitted prior to the expiration of the waiting period may be heard only if the student demonstrates in writing that the student’s circumstances have changed so much that a new hearing is appropriate. The Committee need not hold a hearing on attempts to make such a demonstration.

(d) This rule applies only to petitions that are heard after the date of adoption of this rule, March 10, 2004.

Rule 15.8: Enrollment Limits in Courses and Seminars.

(a) No seminar shall contain more than fourteen students. In instances in which more than fourteen qualified students seek to enroll in a seminar, enrollment shall be by lottery under procedures published by the Associate Dean for Administration. Such procedures shall give priority to seniors who have not yet taken a seminar.

(b) Enrollment in any course may be limited by authorization of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in consultation with the faculty involved. The Associate Dean for Administration shall determine who shall be admitted to limited-enrollment courses.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of these rules except for Rule 15.8(a), the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, with the consent of the instructor, may authorize an increase in the enrollment limit for a course. In cases where there is no rule or policy specifying an enrollment limit, the instructor may increase the enrollment limit at his/her discretion.

Topic 16: Scholastic Honors

Rule 16.1: Dean's Scholars and Dean's List.

(a) The Dean may designate the five percent of the students with the highest grade point averages in a semester as Dean's scholars. The Dean may designate the next twenty per cent of the students with the highest grade point averages in a semester as on the Dean's list.

(b) The Dean may designate the five percent of the first year students (those who have earned 28 or fewer units of law school work) with the highest grade-point averages following the end of the each semester as having earned First-Year High Honors. The Dean may designate the next twenty percent as having earned First-Year Honors. Calculations of honors under this subsection following the Fall Semester shall include courses taken in the preceding summer.

Rule 16.2: Honors at Graduation.

(a) The Faculty may recommend for honors those students whose grade averages place them within the top fifteen percent of their class and who have completed the whole of their law school careers at this law school.

(b) Students who have completed at least two terms of their academic work at another law school and whose grade point averages, on the basis of their work at this institution place them within the top fifteen percent of their class, may be recommended for honors in addition to those recommended for honors under the preceding rule.

(c) The Faculty may recommend students eligible for honors, for high honors or highest honors.

Rule 16.3: Computation of Class Rank. . Except as provided in this Topic and Topic 11, class rank shall not be computed for any purpose.

Topic 17: Committee on Academic Petitions

Rule 17.1: Composition. The Committee on Academic Petitions shall consist of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and a member of the full-time tenured or tenure-track Faculty appointed by the Dean for a two-year term. The Dean of Students and the Academic Records Administrator shall serve as non-voting members of the Committee. The Dean shall designate the Chair of the Committee.

Rule 17.2: Jurisdiction.

The Committee shall have authority to approve or deny:

(a) petitions pursuant to Topic 14; and
(b) petitions for waivers of the writing requirement to the extent allowed in Topic 7.

Rule 17.3: Procedures.

(a) A quorum shall consist of at least two voting members of the Committee. The grant of any petition or request shall require the affirmative vote of two of the voting members of the Committee.

(b) The Committee's procedures shall, to the extent feasible, provide for standard petition forms for students; for a centralized location where petitions are docketed; and for routine approval of non-controversial matters.

Rule 17.4: Appeals.

(a) Decisions of the Committee are not appealable.

(b) The Committee may, in its judgment, refer a matter to the full Faculty for decision when the Committee believes that the matter involves unusual policy issues.

Rule 17.5: Report to the Faculty. The Administration shall prepare, on behalf of the Committee, an annual report to the Faculty about the Committee's activities and policy issues regarding student petitions within the Committee's jurisdiction.

Topic 18: Committee on Scholastic Standing

Rule 18.1: Composition. The Committee on Scholastic Standing shall consist of four members of the full-time tenured or tenure-track faculty appointed by the Dean and a student in good academic standing selected by the Student Bar Association. The Dean of Students and the Academic Records Administrator shall serve as non-voting members of the Committee. The Dean shall designate one of the faculty members as the Chair of the Committee.

Rule 18.2: Jurisdiction. The Committee shall have authority to:

(a) grant or deny petitions for

1. readmission on probation pursuant to Topic 11;

2. restoration of course or writing credit pursuant to Rules 3.9, 5.3 and 7.8.;

3. requests for a leave of absence or withdrawal by students on warning or re-admitted on probation, or for readmission of such students who have been granted a leave or absence or withdrawal, pursuant to Topic 15.

(b) exercise jurisdiction over students on warning or on probation;

(c) recommend to the Faculty such changes in the law school Rules in the areas of scholastic standing, attendance, and conduct as the Committee deems advisable;

(d) recommend to the Faculty a list of students to be awarded honors at graduation pursuant to Rule 16.2.

Rule 18.3: Procedures.

(a) A quorum for Committee action shall consist of three-fourths (3/4) of the Committee membership. No recommendation shall be made, or petition granted, except with the approval of three members of the Committee.

(b) All petitions to the Committee are legal documents affecting rights and interests and should be treated as such by both the petitioner and the Committee. Thus, they should succinctly set forth the relief prayed for; the grounds upon which the petition is based; a full statement of prior faculty action; and all relevant factual material which may be necessary in order that the Committee may make a proper determination.

(c) All petitions shall be given serious consideration by the Committee. A student may personally appear before the Committee and may be represented by counsel or by a fellow student. A student who has filed a petition with the Committee shall receive written notice at least five (5) days prior to the meeting at which the petition will be considered.

(d) All considerations of petitions by the Committee shall be confidential and no material submitted for consideration shall be disclosed without the knowledge and consent of the petitioner.

(e) Students re-admitted on probation must, as a prerequisite to readmission, notify the Committee (or the chairperson) in writing that they are willing to abide by the conditions attached to their readmission. Such notice must be received by the Committee (or the chairperson) within the time specified in the communication notifying the student that he/she has been re-admitted, but in no event shall that time be less than seven (7) days after the mailing of such communication.

Rule 18.4: Appeals. Decisions of the Committee are final and are not appealable.

Rule 18.5: Report to the Faculty. The Administration shall prepare, on behalf of the Committee, an annual report to the Faculty about the Committee's activities and policy issues regarding petitions within the Committee's jurisdiction.

Rule 18.6: Repeat Petitions.

(a) A student who has been denied re-admission under Topic 11 or 15 may again petition the Committee after a waiting period of at least two academic semesters.

(b) The Committee, in denying either an initial or repeated petition, may shorten the period in (a) to a semester, or lengthen it to a maximum of six semesters depending on the strength of the student’s presentation and the reasons why the student’s petition was denied.

(c) A student petition to be re-admitted prior to the expiration of the waiting period may be heard only if the student demonstrates in writing that the student’s circumstances have changed so much that a new hearing is appropriate. The Committee need not hold a hearing on attempts to make such a demonstration.

(d) This rule applies only to petitions that are heard after the date of adoption of this rule, March 10, 2004.

Topic 19: Procedures for Changing the Rules

Rule 19.1: Procedure in General. The Faculty may, by a majority vote of those qualified to vote under the Faculty's procedures, propose a change in the Rules at any regular or special faculty meeting. Such a change shall be made available for comments by interested students and Faculty, and shall not become final until adopted at a subsequent faculty meeting held at least seven days later.

Rule 19.2: Exceptions. The Faculty may, upon a two-thirds vote, waive the procedure in Rule 19.1.

Topic 20: Transition Provisions

Rule 20.1: Effective Date. These Rules shall take effect July 1, 1995.

Rule 20.2: Credit Previously Earned. Course credits earned under the Rules, as in effect on June 30, 1995, shall be recognized under these Rules.

Rule 20.3: Omitted Provisions. Rules in effect on June 30, 1995, relating to the governance of faculty meetings and the composition of faculty committees shall remain in effect until action is taken by the Faculty.

Rule 20.4: Interpretation. These rules are declaratory of the Rules in effect on June 30, 1995, except insofar as these Rules are expressly to the contrary. Administrative interpretation of the Rules in effect on June 30, 1995, shall be persuasive in interpreting these Rules, except insofar as these Rules are expressly to the contrary.

Appendix A

Former Topic 7: Writing Requirement As In  Effect Prior To Summer Session, 2008

Rule 7.1: Required Writing Credit. A student must earn nine writing credits, as calculated under this Topic, as a condition of graduation.
.
Rule 7.2: Calculation of Writing Credit.

(a) No more than five writing credits in any academic year may be counted towards the requirement for nine writing credits. No more than four writing credits in a summer session may be counted toward the requirement for writing credits.

(b)The Committee on Academic Petitions may increase the academic year limits by one or two units in cases of substantial hardship.

(c) Nothing in this Rule bars a student from taking as many writing credits in a year as the student chooses.

Rule 7.3: Courses Qualifying for Writing Credit.

(a) The Dean shall designate each semester a list of the courses approved by the Dean for writing credit.

(b) Courses conferring writing credits:

(1) Are directly supervised by a professor or by a field supervisor as part of an externship program;

(2) In the case of a course in which either two or three writing credits may be earned, require the student to complete individual or collaborative written work or works totaling at least twenty pages (excluding footnotes) in final draft that constitute a substantial portion of the basis for the final grade, and

(3) Comply with other requirements prescribed by the Dean consistent with these Rules to assure a sound educational experience.

(c) First-year courses (Civil Procedure, Constitutional Law, Contracts, Criminal Law, Legal Research and Writing, Moot Court, Property and Torts) may not qualify for writing credit.

(d) A course may be offered for one writing credit so long as the student is required to complete individual or collaborative written work or works totaling at least ten pages (excluding footnotes).

(e) A student earns writing credit for a course on the list referred to in (a) if the student earns course credit for the course and the professor certifies that the student has satisfactorily completed the course's writing components.

Rule 7.4: Number of Writing Credits.

(a) The list of courses referred to in Rule 7.3(a) shall specify the number of writing credits which a student may earn for the course.

(b) A student shall earn three writing credits for a course listed under Rule 7.3(a) if the opportunity to earn three writing credits for the course is limited to no more than twenty students. At the professor’s discretion, the course may be made available to additional students to earn one or two writing credits. A student may earn three writing credits for a seminar within the meaning of Rule 15.8(a).

(c) A student shall earn two writing credits for a course listed under Rule 7.3(a) if the course meets the requirements of Rule 7.3(b)(2) but the student is not on the list for earning three writing credits.

(d) A student shall earn one writing credit for a course that meets the requirements of Rule 7.3(e), but not 7.3(b)(2).

Rule 7.5: Writing Credit for Directed Research. Students receiving course credit for a directed research project referred to in Rule 3.10 shall receive a number of writing credits equal to the number of course credits for which the project was taken.

Rule 7.6: Writing Credit for Courses Taken Elsewhere. Courses taken while enrolled at another ABA-approved law school or taken as part of a dual-degree program in which the degree was earned for which course credit is allowed at this law school may be counted for writing credit with the permission of the Committee on Academic Petitions. Permission of the Committee must be obtained in advance in the case of a student visiting elsewhere under Topic 14.

Rule 7.7: Denial of Writing Credit.

(a) All writing credit shall be denied for any academic year in which the student fails to earn a 2.0 average.

(b) A student may petition the Committee on Scholastic Standing for restoration of writing credit denied under (a) in either of the following situations:

1. if the student is in good standing as defined in Rule 11.2.; or

2. if the student has a 2.0 average in the student's most recent two semesters and restoration of writing credit would give the student sufficient writing credits to graduate.

(c) The Committee shall restore writing credit if the Committee finds that restoration is appropriate given the student's academic record.

(d) Restored credit may reflect only courses that were passed and not subsequently repeated.

Rule 7.8: Waivers for Students Completing Part of Their Degree Requirements Elsewhere.

(a) The Committee on Academic Petitions may waive the requirement for nine writing credits for students who (by reason of starting their legal education elsewhere, or by reason of visiting other institutions under Topic 14) complete part of their degree requirements elsewhere.

(b) Such a waiver may be granted if the student shows that the student earned writing credit at this and other institutions to the extent possible and that application of the requirements of this Topic would cause unreasonable hardship.

(c) The Committee may, in lieu of or in addition to waiving the required number of writing units, waive the academic year limits of Rule 7.2.